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Tuesday, March 15, 2016

Lewis Henry Bowman and Joseph Edward Bruchac Research Time Line Part 5:

The alleged "mistakes of making false claims" has been done by ... whom?

OR in another way of putting it out there ... "who has been making the false claims?"

NOW I am going share this with the PUBLIC ...

Clearly, Mr. Joseph Edward Bruchac III, and his sister Margaret (nee: Bruchac) Kennick have went to the Amsterdam - Netherlands area, and cultivated their "Abenaki" Indian persona and friendships with European Peoples who are infatuated with the North American Indians. Like children in American schools, Europeans are polite enough NOT to question and not to demand the merits of the person Playing Abenaki, and the claims and assertions being made. Just because one wears regalia doesn't make the person an Indian. But if a person wears a costume, they just might be a clown.

So what was going on, back in May of 2009 leading up to August of 2009?

May 06, 2009
Ancestry.com ‘Abenaki – Bomwan’ Message Board
From: migakawinno [Jesse Bowman Bruchac … Joseph Bruchac III’s son]
Subject: Bowman – Obomsawin
Kwai Doug, Carollee and other friends I know in this thread.
I hope you are well. Since I've been mentioned a few times by name and this revolves around my family, as well of course, around many of ours, I thought I'd share a little of what I know.
As we have always said more is unknown than known. A great deal of faith and courage went into my father's decision to embrace his IMPLIED and APPROPRIATED Native heritageHe took a leap and I thank him for this and for raising me with an awareness and great respect for everything beautiful about life, Native culture and the earth. This is a respect, Native or not, we should all have. There is much beauty. My life now centers around many circles, one of which has remained for almost 20 years now the fight to keep the Western Abenaki language alive. If you would like to learn more about it, please visit http://westernabenaki.com
First this thread needs some clarification. To suggest that the 1700’s were a time when Native people had no concerns with racism shows a lack of knowledge about Native history. This was the time of the forced removals and the most likely time for one to hide their identity if possible as Native in order to literally save their lives. Indians in the northeast at this time literally had bounties put on their heads.
Secondly what we now call the Abenaki are in fact a coming together of many diverse groups. Many were from New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, New York, Massachusetts and from peoples as diverse as the Mohawk, Wendat (Huron), Nipmuc, Wampanoag, Penobscot, Sokwaki, Mohican etc.
 The term Abenaki simply means "easterner". Grey Lock himself was Woronoco.
As for the Bowman family, the Indian blood is there. The full extent will likely never be known. Most of the family hid their Native ancestry in order to find work and live normal lives in their homelands without threat of removal or racism. Others likely forgot, or did not care enough to remember they had Native ancestry at all.
The suggested Bowman/Obomsawin connection has been made by many, but directly to us by an Odanak elder Maurice Denis who proposed to my aunt and father in the 1970s that it was a name changeI call this B-S, Maurice Dennis is not alive to validate that he ever said that Obomsawin was Bowman. This is very likely a concoction made by the Bruchac friend, John Scott Moody.
Maurice Denis was my father’s mentor at the time and I spent many days as a young child in his kitchen hearing the Abenaki language as he taught my dad the tradition stories of long ago. Maurice Denis lived not far from us and ran an Indian village in Old Forge NY where we spent many summers.
Anyway, he believed we were Obomsawin’s, but this has not and likely cannot be proven.
In addition, as suggested in this thread it may not be the case at all. However, even without a name change, Bowman itself is a very old Eastern Algonquin family nameIt's ALSO A VERY OLD EUROPEAN (English, Scots, German, and Switzerland surname as well! On the record in the 17th century in Massachusetts among the Natick people. To present it remains a common family name of the Nipmuck, Stockbridge Munsee Mohicans and is also connected with the Wampanoag families many of whom trace their Native ancestry through Bowman lines. That does not mean YOU descend from those families whatsoever!
The Senical (Seneca, Senecal) line (Lewis Bowman's mother Sophie Senical) is equally interesting. The Senecal family has a documented history with Odanak, Yamaska and surrounding communitiesDesperate to 'attach' the Bowman family descendants to a Native Abenaki ancestry to validate the published theories, guesses, and leaps of faith dear old daddy has made and said, right along with his sister Marge, to fit their concocted narrative.
 Intermarrying with the Gill's in the 1840’s and prior to this making some failed business deals together, even selling off some of the reserve with help of the then Odanak chief Gill. The famous artist, Charles Gill has a Senecal grandfather. Not clear if this family is Sophie's family, but Senecal's landed in Three Rivers, Quebec in 1640ish from France, 40 years before the Abenaki community of Odanak was established and are still there today. Again, this is NOT the Bowman - Senecal dit Laframbois ancestry that the Bruchac's descend from.
Other unanswered ancestors in our genealogy are numerous.
Out of Vermont, the Bedel's on my mom's side, and through the Dunham line (my grandma’s mom), the Mann's and Spear's all drop off fast and may have Abenaki links. 'Fishing' again in the dark without any supportive valid genealogical evidence to support their claims and myths.
Like most ancestries, ours has more questions than answers, but a clear pattern emerges. Close contact with northeast Native communities and most lines being in the northeast from first European contact and before. Hah, 'clear patterns'? Perhaps Lewis Bowman Sr. was a black man fleeing the south, came up into Vermont, and decided to pitch a left direction of travel, instead of entering Quebec, Canada because he was a child of parents born into slavery?
What is known Native-wise is Jesse Bowman's Mohawk ancestry through his mother Alice Van Antwerp is well documented and multi-layered. One line below is to Ots Toch - Hartell (Snow Bird). Also another branch of the Van Antwerp line hits Grietje, who has been mentioned.

This might help some of you:

1. Ots Toch Hartell
2. Elizabeth VanSlyck
3. Cornelius VanBuren
4. Aaltje VanNess VanBuren
5. Hendrikje Fonda VanBuren
6. Douwe VanAntwerp
7. Winant Van Antwerp
8. Daniel Wynet Van Antwerp
9. Alice Van Antwerp
10. Jesse Elmer Bowman
11. Marion Flora Bowman
12. Joseph Bruchac             
13. Jesse Bowman Bruchac

Kwai Mskwamagw [Douglas Lloyd Buchholz] ta kdagik nid8bak ta nid8baskwak. N'kawachowi kd'agakimziba aln8baiwi askwa.

Migakawinno [#13]

Herein the above email Mr. Jesse Bowman Bruchac is acknowledging that he and his Bruchac family received the awareness and mapping back to their how-many-generations-back Mohawk ancestor BASED SOLELY ON MY RESEARCH. It was thereafter they began wearing gustoweh in their presentations, both in-person and in video's. On Ancestry.com people were questioning the MERITS and INTEGRITY of the Bruchac's claims and assertions. Some Bowman descendants and their supporters, were also posting what Mr. Joseph Bruchac III had written in Bowman's Store, as proof of Abenaki Identity. [If Joe is claiming and dressing and performing as an Abenaki ... why can't I? I must be Abenaki because Joe SAYS he has the 'proof' ... but he doesn't, because it didn't exist in the first place!]

July 10-12, 2009
Margaret Bruchac and her husband Justin Kennick perform "Hand in Hand" at the Champlain Quadricentennial Celebration in Burlington, VT.

July 13, 2009
Marge Bruchac
My time in Burlington, Vermont was pretty disconnected. The Diversity Forum was small in attendance, large in spirit, but I had to rush off to perform on the massive waterfront stage with way too much competition from the wind, and a very distracted audience. Preparations for the parade were rain-soaked chaos, but the Abenaki color guard stepped proudly off in the lead, despite threats of cancellation, with a fine show of unity. Our gig in the Abenaki Cultural Village at the Echo Center was small and pleasant. It was immediately followed by Fred Wiseman and the Abenaki closing with a stinging critique of what the organizers did wrong. Let's hope this event inspires some kind of lasting transformation in Abenaki relations in Vermont...

July 19-24, 2009
Marge Bruchac was a Writer-in-Residence for Wabanaki Youth Writers' Camp, sponsored by the Maine Writers' Guild and Penobscot Nation, near Oldtown, ME.

July 27, 2009-
Margaret (nee: Bruchac) and Justin Kennick traveled to the Netherlands, Amsterdam, Holland, Belgium and do their lectures/ presentations/ songs. While there she got on a computer of a Dutch friend Jans Pietersz (John Peters … johnpeters@hotmail.com), and sent to www.nosorigins.qc.ca
(a genealogical website in New Brunswick) data that IMPLIED as ‘fact’ that Lewis (Louis) Bowman who had married Alice Van Atwerpt was allegedly the son of Francois-Louis O’Bomsawin and his wife Agnes Anne Olinass.

This is the format on nosorigins.qc.ca  
(much like www.familysearch.org or Ancestry.com)
wherein, a person can input the data, submit it into the genealogical tree's

The records were entered July 27, 2009 at after 2 o’clock Eastern Time.
[See the below email from Hans Waldispuhl]

Hans Waldispuhl, the Administrateur IT (of www.nosorigines.qc.ca)
Immediately removed the data from the website, when I had telephoned him,
and I questioning WHO placed the data on the website?
was there submitted substantiating documentation?
to support the submitter claims and assertions?
that Louis O'Bomsawin and Agnes Olinass had a son 
Louis "Obomsawin" Bowman in 1843
Who would submit such data into a New Brunswick, Canada
Genealogical Data Base
Why, and for what purpose?

I began to figure that out, because this act was not a of 
mere mistake of making false claims"

It is a intentional manipulation of the Obomsawin and Bowman Ancestries!

Marge Bruchac [ Native American ]

ca. August 2009
(Google Translated)
Marge Bruchac, sister of the famous Native American storyteller Joseph Bruchac, came one afternoon action with us. A remarkable woman with an intriguing narrative voice. Even though they spoke English, which seemed to be no objection to the children who were in the hall. From time to time she asked "hey!" To which the audience responded with "ho!" - It should be. It was quite entertaining, as far as possible with such a 'how the fox's tail kreeg' content. But the real story came after a period out of the bag when we (after we had caught the glassware in boxes because of the upcoming renovations) we had installed all the volunteers at dining tables in the main room. 

How could it well anyway that they until quite late in her life found out was that she was Indian? Well, that was so: then you had better not Indian because you fell no best treatment in part (up to sterilization). Her parents had her and her brother was not told. She worked (anthropology) at the museum when a visitor during a lecture asked her to tell a story of the Abenaki, but told her nothing. Then he said: "I'm an Abenaki Indian and so are you." In retrospect, her talent seems to be a vocation not something she does just what she simply has not let can. The question remains what kind of stories she was raised ...

As you can see and review, Margaret Bruchac (now married to Justin Kennick) went to Amsterdam, and Holland, and various places in the Netherlands. After the July 2009 Champlain Quadricentennial Celebration happened, in which she was in attendance July 10-12, and she flew to the Netherlands. Performing as “Hand in Hand” they did several tour of the Netherlands and perhaps even Germany their performance "Zahkiwi Lintowoganal / Voices in the Woods" at varied venues in the Netherlands. http://www.maligeet.net/Performance_Venues.html

Message body

Hans Waldispuhl Administrateur IT
3713, Route 134
Shediac Bridge, N.B. E4R 1R9
T 506 351 0514

In conclusion ... let's follow this down the rabbit hole of shenanigans, October 2008 into May of 2009 there was online discussion between varied persons, both related and allied supporters of the Bruchac family, claiming that Obomsawin was the original name of the Bowman's in which the Bruchac's descended from. 

It was at that time, I had been mapping out the Bruchac's ancestors ... due to my own genealogical curiosity attempting to validate the claims and assertions they have been making and had made as fact, within Joseph Bruchac III's books, etc., that I found Ots-toch, the Mohawk woman in their ancestral background in 1600's. Regardless, , this did not make any of them Mohawk Indians ... not Jesse Elmer Bowman nor his father Lewis Henry Bowman, let alone Joseph Edward Bruchac III. Certainly not Abenakis either.

I discussed the following information in a previous February 13, 2013 blog post:

Here  are better quality images of the excellent article by Cynthia Bisca.

I strongly suggest a review of the data in the previously published posting:

Lewis Henry Bowman's Civil War Pension Records

They stated in their books that within the Pension Records of Lewis H. Bowman Sr., that it indicated or was written, that Mr. Bowman was from "St. Francis". I sought out the Civil War Pension Records for Lewis Henry Bowman, on June, 15, 2012, as one can review in the above image.

No one finances my research. I do it on my own, as I can finance doing such work, genealogically or genetically. 

I wanted to see if the Pension Record did, in fact, mention "St. Francis" and it does not, contrary to what was written in the book, March Towards The Thunder published in 2008. Clearly on pages 292-293, Mr. Joseph Edward Bruchac III,  states, that the Pension Records state merely Canada as a place of birth. But then down the page he claims that his great-grandfather was Canadian, but a Canadian of Native descent, whose ancestral roots were in what became the United States. Records list his birth as St. Francis, the name then used for the Abenaki Indian reserve of Odanak, a mission village made up largely of refugee Indians from New England who fled north to escape the English during the eighteenth century.

Where is this documented evidence that he implies says "St. Francis" on it? Does he not know that there are many "St. Francis's" in the Province of Quebec, Canada ... not just Odanak? Does point a finger at Odanak, because the alleged "St Francis" that he SAYS is shown on some alleged document pertaining to his Great-Grandfather Lewis H. Bowman fits HIS narrative? 

According to "Turn and Jump: How Time & Place Fell Apart" by Howard Mansfield published in 2010, it is his own sister Margaret or Marge (nee: Bruchac) Kennick who states, on Page 150, that her grandfather [Jesse Elmer Bowman] was dark-skinned and said he was Black

Joseph Bruchac, her brother, in "Bowman's Store" and numerous other books, state's that their grandfather Jesse said he was French.

But Joseph Edward Bruchac III's SAYS in Bowman's Store, on Page 253, stated that his own father, Joseph Edward Bruchac II, stated, "You know, your grandfather is an Abenaki Indian." 

Telling stories was a family affair. Jesse Bowman himself NEVER said such a thing to anyone in his life? 

Perhaps because it just wasn't true, and that it is just all in his grandson's head and it was Joe Bruchac III that brought that concocted post 1975 narrative into profitability in a created "Abenaki" persona


When a mother introduces her son as "my son, the Indian" 
It means she doesn't apply the same identity to herself, because
ONLY he is the one perpetuating that created persona
If she KNEW her own father, Jesse Elmer Bowman was Indian ...
Why did she address her son in this way?

If he was a Hippie, she would have referred to him as, "my son, the Hippie"

What is the difference between this man (below)

Who claims to be ...

"Cherokee/Cree Indian"

And  this one (below)

Who claims to be ...

In July 30, 2015 I wrote to the Town of Greenfield, in Greenfield Center, N.Y., seeking two documents. One was a Marriage Record between Jesse Elmer Bowman and Katherine (nee: Gray) Ritchie. 

And the second document is pertaining to Lewis Henry Bowman and his second wife, sister to his first, and both being survivors of their perspective spouses. Nowhere does it mention "St Francis" or "Indian" or "Abenaki" etc.

I have attached the images to the original documentation as well that I found online. No where does it indicate or imply that Lewis Henry Bowman nor his son Jesse Elmer Bowman was identifying or being identified as Indians, Abenakis, Blacks or the like.

Now lets look at some Federal Census Records, etc for both men and some of their descendants:





Part 1
Part 2
Part 3

December 01 1886








Jesse Elmer Bowman Marriage Record
Katherine (nee: Gray) Ritchie

June 07, 1912


Unknown Date






June 21 1924
Mr. and Mrs. Edward H. Dunham, whose Splinterville residence was destroyed by fire of undetermined origin early yesterday morning, are making their home in the original Dunham homestead which stands opposite the Middle Grove highway on the Saratoga Springs-Geenfield Center state road. Mr. and Mrs. Dunham, previous to the time they erected the residence burned yesterday, occupied the frame building which stands just north of their gasoline filling station. Chief of Police James J. O'Brien of Ballston Spa, representing the district attorney's office and State Tooper Daniel Sullivan were investigating the affair last night. Chief O'Bien was in charge of investigations Into several other lawless acts committed at the Dunham estate on previous occasions.
The fire yesterday, according to Mr. Dunham and neighbors, who arrived at the scene early, was incendiary. An early investigation, they claim, showed gasoline or kerosene had been thrown against the side of the house and ignited. Mr. and Mrs. Dunham fortunately escaped.
Yesterday's fire, believed by Mr. Dunham to be a part of the program to exterminate his family followed several other attacks upon his property during the past year.
A valuable cow and horse were killed while three hundred apple trees were destroyed by unidentified
persons. Shots have also been fired into the bed room occupied by Mr. and Mrs. Dunham and, at
his son-in-law, Jesse Bowman. Last spring a saw mill owned by Mr. Dunham was destroyed by fire. A man named Warren Bowman was arrested, charged with the crime, but was never indicted or convicted.


May 25, 1925
ter work and dealing in real estate to a small extent.
Bowman Also Accused 
The plaintiff then called James Flansburgh of Greenfield, who said he was at the Dunham farm the night after the fire. He was not permitted to testify what Mr. Dunham is alleged to have told him about the fire because of his name not being mentioned in the pleadings.
William Barney, blacksmith, Greenfield, told of going to the fire the night of June 20, 1924, and testified that Mr. Dunham said to him that he, Mr. Dunham, was "satisfied in his own mind that Mike Hayes and Warren Bowman set fire to the place."
Under cross examination the witness said he knew Warren Bowman is now a fugitive from Justice
and that James Hayes, a brother of Michael Hayes, and another man hadto make good Bowman's bail bond of several hundred dollars.
Barney also testified that he was not surprised at what Mr. Dunham told him concerning the origin of
the fire and that he had seen Warren Bowman and Michael Hayes together many times.
John Passutt of Greenfield was the plaintiff's last witness but his testimony concerning what Mr.
Dunham said to him about the fire was stricken from the record because it was not within the pleadings in the case. He said he knew both the Dunham and Hayes families.
Under cross examination the witness admitted his wife Had hart him arrested for beating her and
his children and that at one time he had a still on his farm and made "hootch." Passutt said Justice of
the Peace Robinson had told him to get rid of the still and that he had broken it but denied that he
ever made "hootch" for the Hayes brothers to sell, although he knew that Hayes had beep arrested on
a charge of violating the dry law.
The plaintiff then rested and the defendant moved for a non-suit on the grounds the plaintiff had failed to establish any cause for action. The motion was denied and after a ten minute recess Mr. Dunham took the witness stand.
Mr. Dunham, a man sixty-three years old, told of being awakened by Mrs. Dunham the night of the
Are and that as he left the bed, the bedroom window was broken by the heat. 
He said he tried to turn on an electric light but the lights would not function. He made his way to the kitchen, Mr. Dunham said he tried to get to extinguish the flames, but his efforts were of
no avail.
The witness also testified that a pile of cord wood on the rear porch was blazing and that there was fire around the kitchen door. He denied that he ever directly accused Hayes of firing the farm house, but suspected him of it the night of the fire and does to this day.
Mr. Dunham said that during fire, Hayes drove by the house twice in his automobile and persona in
the rear seat of the car were singing. Mr. Dunham added he built the house about thirteen years ago and that on July 4, 1921 Hayes had threatened to "get us and it wouldn't take long to do it," if the Dunham's said anything about his, Hayes', business. Mr. Dunham said that the day after the fire a lawsuit was started against him by a girl friend of Hayes' who charged assault. The outcome of the lawsuit was not permitted to go on the record and the details of an occurrence on the state road near the Dunham place in which Hayes was said to have taken an important part, was also not allowed to go on the record by Justice John C. Crapser.
Jesse Bowman, Mr. Dunham's son-in-law, went on the witness stand and told of finding Mr. Dunham's horse dead in a gully on the Dunham farm. He said he had asked Flansburgh to look at the horse and that Flansburgh told he did not want to say anything against the Hayes because he was afraid of them. The defense rested its case and moved for dismissal of the complaint, but the motion was denied. Court them recessed until 1:45 o'clock at which time the attorney's began to sum up.

June 15 1925
The case of Warren Bowman, indicted for perjury, who has absconded and forfeited bail of $2,500.00 dollars was held on the calendar awaiting his arrest.



Do you see any indication of Bowman's or their descendants being identified as Indian, Black or Abenaki on any of the above records?

The Bruchac's ancestors certainly consistently were identifying as WHITE, well back into the 1880's.

January 22 1977 
Joseph E. Bruchac III 

March 14, 1979
Poets to read at KAC Monday night
After years of study at Cornell and Syracuse and three years in Africa, Joseph Bruchac has returned to live in Saratoga Springs, home of his Abenaki Indian ancestors.

As you can see, Mr. Joseph Edward Bruchac III, just before December 14, 1989, stated that his Abenaki ancestors, part of the Indian nation that encompassed most of New England, parts of southeastern Canada and stretched into the northern Adirondacks, is traceable to 1637 in Three Rivers, Quebec, Canada, where Jesuit missionaries kept careful records in their quest, Bruchac says, to account for all available candidates for conversion to Christianity.
His maternal great-grand-parents, whose family name was originally Obomsawin - which translates into "keeper of the council fire" - moved from Canada to the Saratoga Springs area where they sold baskets to tourists.
Joseph Bruchac III said he has take care to impart his ancestral knowledge and viewpoint to his two sons and they have followed him in developing a keen interest in their heritage.

Joe Bruchac III SAID

 his father Joe Bruchac II SAID Joe's Grandfather Jesse Elmer Bowman 
"was an Abenaki"

Or did he simply mean "Black as an Abenaki" ?

This DOES NOT MEAN Jesse Bowman was in fact an Abenaki
(Geneaologically - Historically - Genetically)
(Or even Culturally)

"Growing Up Abenaki" (see above image)

How can this man Joe Bruchac III, (raised by his grandfather Jesse Elmer Bowman) 
... have grown up to adult in an Abenaki culture, heritage etc, 
when Jesse Bowman rarely talked about his bloodlines?
Never shared with Joe Bruchac III, the history and traditions 
of his heritage?

January 13, 2004
From: Bruce Dubois [another FAKE "abenaki" who tried to 'attach himself' to the Obomsawins from and of Odanak]
Hi Lawrence, 
Just to let you know in a reply to what was written ... Carol Bruchac, Joe Bruchac ARE NOT Native authors as far as the Abenaki Reserve is concerned ... They have been sent letters asking them to prove their genealogy by the Chief and Council and  have ignored the letters. 
They have been riding the Native horse to death over the last 20 years ... and it is time that the ones PROFITING from such things as Arts, Crafts, Storytelling, Authors, etc. and cannot prove their Native Heritage be EXPOSED for what they really are ... FRAUDS.
Regards, Bruce

January 14, 2004
Hi Bruce, 
I would appreciate if you could clarify some things about Joseph Bruchac. I used to live in VT in the late eighties to early nineties and did a lot of work with the Swanton Abenakis (Homer St. Francis and those folks) and Joseph was working with them pretty often. He did a couple of events for them and h was on a few panels with Homer and others.
I never heard anyone in Swanton say anything negative about Joe; quite the contrary ... and Joe was always clear about his mixed ancestry (Abenaki but also Slovak, etc) So I am wondering if things have changed over the last decade ... as I have not kept in as good touch as I should have. I also know that the Reserve and Swanton are different communities and whether there are issues there.
In solidarity,

Well of course, Swanton, Vermont's community of wannabiak are not going to say anything bad about Joe. He's famous, well-known, and accepted as an "Abenaki" because he SAID so. Because he SAYS he has the evidence and genealogical foundation to support his claims and assurances. They see him as one-of-their-own, because they didn't and do not have the genealogical-historical or social documentation pre-1975 to support their claims and assurances either. Both were 'using' each other. This is why HE had a Membership Card in Homer's group since 1978.

Joseph Edward Bruchac III: St. Francis – Sokoki “Abenaki” Membership Card #3312

March 07 2002
Genforum.com Message Board
From: Jack Lynch [or is this Mary Ann (nee: Bruchac) Joseph Bruchac's younger sister?]

"There presently is a family [Bruchac's] group from this line [Bowman's] that is circulating unfounded genealogical information for their personal economic benefit, so be careful."

July 15, 2010
Joseph Edward Bruchac III at the ARTSEDGE The Kennedy Center uploaded on July 15, 2010.
Explaining the origin and significance of the flute and the drum to Native American culture. 

Alakwsak Woodward H. F. (s8gm8)

More on this "faker" /
Wannabe "Chief" here:

Anthony Jon Picanso

Notice the "bnsaints" commentary posted replies on YouTube.com. 

It's not ONLY my own person who has been aware of the distortion(s) and the disregard for the facts, and lack of documentation by the Bruchac's.

That whole "hiding-in-plain sight" crap was perpetuated by Margaret Bruchac-Kennick because the Bruchac's have never had the documentation to support their theories, their guesses, or their "leap(s) of faith" etc. 

Reminds me of when Joe Bruchac on February 04, 1978 in The Schenectady Gazette Newspaper, Page 08 article entitled "Reading Set on Poetry of Bruchac" wherein he stated, "Joseph Bruchac, who is half Abenaki Indian, brings a deep love of nature to his poetry and his life’s work."

And then I look at the genealogical/genetic distance between himself and his Mohawk woman ancestress, Ots-Toch from the 1600's and I think what ... ?

More to continue in the next post ...

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