Mazipskwik - Highgate Center
Alnobak Nebesakiak/Women's Hoop - N.E. Kingdom
Northeast Native American Education Association - Glover
Missisquoi - Swanton
Cowasuck - Newport
Dawnland Center - Montpelier
Abenaki Family Alliance - Essex County
Hawk Clan - Evansville
Beaver Meadows - Orleans
Aristignticook - Orleans
Written by Philip J. Thibault a.k.a. "Soaring Eagle", in pen ink:
Maquam Band (Swanton)
Bear Clan - North Troy
Fred Wiseman PhD - Johnson State
Jeanne Brinke - Dawnland Center
Colin Calloway - Dir. Native American Studies - Dartmouth
Dawnland Encounters - Colin Calloway
The Original Vermonters - Haviland & Powers
Changes in the Land - William Cronin
NO "El-Nu" Abenaki Tribe
NO "Koasek of the Koas" Tribe?
NO "Nulhegan-Coosuk" Abenaki Tribe?
Oh ... that's because these contemporary ALLEGED and REINVENTED "Abenaki Tribes" had not INCORPORATED (under VT State Laws... YET) ... Oh ... wait a second ... these groups DID NOT EXIST before their Incorporation Status Dates!
Photo by Vanessa Fournier
despite support from all 30 Senators and 110 co-sponsors in the House.
The resolution first "recognizes the tribal status of the Abenaki people," and then tries to response to the concerns voiced by Dean by adding:
"That, while this recognition is not intended to confer any special rights upon the Abenaki people, such as claims to Vermont lands or privileges not extended to other minority groups, it is intended to ensure that the Abenaki people receive the same recognition and privileges extended by the state of Vermont to any other minority group."
Dean's fear of unintended legal consequences for such recognition drew support in a letter to lawmakers Friday from William Griffin, chief assistant attorney general.
Griffin wrote that, "The real thrust of this 'recognition' resolution would be to foster the creation of a distinct tribal nation within Vermont, a nation entitled to a government-to-government relationship with the sate and federal governments."
Abenakis then "would have special privileges not available to Vermonters generally or to any other minority group in Vermont," Griffin said.
In an interview, he rejected charges that the concerns stemmed from racism. He said the attorney general's office has successfully pursued complaints of discrimination against Abenakis several times in recent years.
Those at Friday's news conference sought to shift the focus away from worries about the consequences of federal recognition, though Rushlow and others said the Abenakis want that recognition.
Wiseman said the limited recognition offered in the state resolution would improve the chances that Abenaki children would be found eligible for scholarships set aside for minorities.
For her part, Rushlow refused to offer any guarantee that if the Abenakis won federal recognition some time in the future, they would not seek to assert the sort of land claims Dean said he feared. "We would have to put that to a vote or our people," she said.
FOR RECOGNTION - Sen. Julius Canns, R-Caledonia, right, speaks at a news conference about a resolution recognizing Vermont's Abenaki Indians as a tribe in Montpelier Friday. As left is Chief April Rushlow of the Abenaki and at center is Dr. Fred Wiseman.
By Christopher Roy
The Newport Daily Express
...."Finance chief and treasurer for North American People of the Dawn, Inc. Luke Willard, said they recently rented the new office and offer six social service programs, including tribal registration and genealogy research. He said he encourages people to join the tribe, "be it has to be certified, without error, and backed up. Eventually, we'll go for recognition, and they are going to ask for all these files."....
...."Willard credits Rep. Loren Shaw and Nancy Sheltra (Orleans-1). "I contacted most of the Six Pack, and we got support from all of them, but Loren was the one who invited us to Montpelier to lobby. We want people to know we're here and ready to start working," he said. "We're not just a tribe, we're a 501 C-3 social service agency since 1999 and incorporated since 1993."
Fax'd email from Luke Andrew Willlard to Ralph Skinner Swett ... of the Clan of the Hawk, Inc.'d located in Evansville, Orleans County, Vermont.
Chief Spirit Water [Now calls himself Chief Lone Cloud]
Kwai Nidoba, [Hello my friend in Abenaki]
Thank you for giving me the opprotunity to speak with you this afternoon. You stated that 'nothing can be accomplished until the people come together' and your right. This is what we are trying to do. We want to form a working and cooperating relationship between the Algonquin Wabanaki Confederation [North American People of the Dawn, Inc.] and the Clan of the Hawk. Our goal is to see as many tribes, bands, clans, etc. agree to cooperate and work together toward the goals that we can all agree on ... recognition, existence, and preservation. We have been in contact with State Representatives and so far we have received very positive feedback and commitments of support. We have calls in to key officials of many Abenaki organizations in hopes to achieve friendly relations and cooperation. As you know, the Northeast Kingdom has a high population of Native peoples and I'm sure you'll agree that as Native Americans we have the obligation to respect and honor one another. With steps being taken towards recognition it is vrey important that we make our presence known in the Northeast. Please consider this communication the first of many friendly relations to come. Also notify me as soon as possible as to whether or not I may include the Clan of the Hawk in our petition as I am making the trip to Montpelier next week.
May the Great Spirit guide and watch over you and yours...
AWC [Algonquin Wabanaki Confederation] Tribal Spokesman
498 Highland Ave.
Newport, VT 05855
From: Northern Border
Luke A. Willard
To: Clan of the Hawk
Chief Spirit Water
May 16, 2002
Vermont State Legislature
Vermont State Senate
Ladies and Gentleman:
It is hereby agreed that the Vermont Abenaki, including but not limited to, the Algonquin-Wabanaki Confederation, the St. Francis-Sokoki Band, the Clan of the Hawk, the Alnobak Nebasakiak and other sub-clans, have occupied and inhabited the land we know as the State of Vermont since time immemorial.
It is also agreed that there is no proof that the Abenaki knowingly or cooperativesly extinguished Aboriginal Title to the land occupied by the State of Vermont.
It is finally agreed that the Vermont Abenaki, defined above, should receive the status of recognition at the state level, which would lead to federal recognition to preserve their culture, heritage, and sovereignty for future generations.
From: Northern Border
Luke A. Willard
To: Clan of the Hawk
Chief Spirit Water
Native American Tribal Entity
Anticipated paid staff after (one) 1 Year: None
Anticipated budget after (one) 1 Year: $0-$24,999.00
Anticipated voluteer staff after (one) 1 Year:
Do you plan to apply for tax-exempt status with the IRS: Yes
INCORPORATOR'S NAME, ADDRESS & SIGNATURE:
Printed Name: Nancy Lee A. Cote
Signature: Nancy Lee A. Cote - Rolls
Address: P. O. Box 944
City: Derby Line
Sip Code: 05830-0944
The nulhegan Band is located in Derby/Newport, VT in the ancestral heart of Abenaki territory. This territory and many Nulhegan citizens trace back to the Abenaki Bands and families that inhabited the rivers and forests surrounding Lake Memphremagog (Mamblamagok in Aln8bak) and Salem Lake (formerly Lac 'd Abenaquis) and across the Nulhegan basin. The Nulhegan watershed area is (loosely) the land east of the Jay Peak and north of Sheffield Mountain within the counties of Orleans and Essex, Vermont. These Abenaki were often called St. Francis Indians, Cowasuck, Nulheganooks, Coos, etc.
The Nulhegan Band Constitution is a melting pot of Abenaki and Iroquoian law and tradition. Rather than chieftainship, the Nulhegan Band is administered by a three-member board of Trustees [Inc. Board of Director's] who act upon the decisions of Council. Although they have no offical council vote, day-to-day activities and management of tirbal affairs aret he responsibilities of the Board of Trustees. The governing bodies of the Band are the Men's Longhouse Council and the Ladies Judiciary Council. Each extended family must appoint a worthy individual to the Warrior's Society. Each Warrior is responsible for delivering their family's opinions and votes to the Councils. [Sounds VERY FAMILIAR to Howard F. Knight Jr.'s COWASUCK "Confederation" Hocus Pocus...] Council meetings are held monthly at various locations throughout our territory.
AHA Inc, which stands for 'Abenaki Helping Abenaki', is the non-profit 501(c)3 corporation that will house a Cultural Resource Center and Tribal Headquarters. Visitors will enjoy and utilize a full historical resource center, complete with several public computer stations, language tutorials, and a library. Space has been appropriated for the display and sale of the traditional arts and crafts of the Abenaki. With the help of the Vermont Food Bank, a pantry will be available to qualifying families. Community action referral and advocacy services will balance out AHA's list of goals.
STATE OF VERMONT
With membership at record levels for any Abenaki community, the Nulhegan Band has a strong voice in Abenaki Tribal affairs. Trustees gave testimony to legislature regarding S.117 Abenaki Recognition Bill. We were present when Governor Jim Douglas signed the bill into law May 3rd, 2006. With the opportunities of State Recognition, the Nulhegan Band will be working with the Vermont Commisson on Native American Affairs as well as local municipalities and agencies on such issues as housing, economic development, education, health care, and the environment.
Although Nulhegan Band members are located all over the country, most live here on the Nulhegan Watershed in the Northeast Kingdom of Vermont. Members are screened by a Census Committee. The three criteria for enrollment are Genealogical Documentation, Oral Family History, and Abenaki Community Perception. Family is very important to the Nulhegan Band. This is why we encourage extended family enrollment. Members are welcome to participate in tribal affairs and may contact Trustees and Council members any time.