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Sunday, September 19, 2010

The "Abenaki" Plot Thickens....Part 4: Winifred (nee: Jerome) Yaratz Book Regarding the Phillips Family; Old Peter Phillips; Philip's Land Grand of 1796; Bedel's Grant of 1798; Etc.

Many Names of the Phillips and Blakes
The Older Phillips ware called Black Phillips because they had dark skin. They were buried as Colored even though they were Indian. The Phillips wanted Indian put on their death records but Vermont chooses (sic) to write colored. The White People would say they looked Indian. They didn't want to come out and say they were Indian because that would be saying there really was Indians in Vermont. (now after 1975, it is cool to be "Indian")
Because this would be calling their (sic) selves liars. They would be going against there (sic) own believes of saying Vermont has no Indians. The Whites didn't want to claim Vermont had Indians because they wanted to take over all the land in Vermont for free by saying no Indians lived there.
They were still being called Gypsies way into the 60's. That's because they were moving around and acting as basketmaking "Gypsies". Then again, how many brown ash baskets can a Phillips sell to the same farmer or tourist? It was hard for many of them to have jobs because of the way they were classified by the towns in Vermont. The "genocide" of them followed them into the next generation. The Eugenic's Survey "Field Researcher" Ms. Harriett Abbott to name just one, sought out FAMILY MEMBERS of the "targeted" families she intended to research, as well as Town Clerk's like Asa Wesson of Danville, Vermont...to get the information she wanted. If anyone was perpetuating "genocide", it was one family member or more, such as Hollis Way of West Danville VT, or his kith and kin cousin of a sort Mrs. Helen Way of Peacham VT etc. Even Phillips family members were "singing" familial information, that was being documented by Ms. Harriett Abbott.
Many changed their names for they could have a life without being harassed when they tried to live in Vermont. No, they changed their names because A. they were speech-impaired (meaning accents, dialect or that English may have another language as their 1st language i.e. French, Gaelic, Abenaki, Mohawk) B. under-educated (for various reason's) C. the person doing the writing was either speech or hearing impaired or under-educated (because of the above reasons). Some even moved to New York State after the State of Vermont was genociding them. No, they went to New York, because A. they possibly angered some daughter's parents B. they were possibly evading the law of Vermont after doing some "criminal activity" or C. they were possibly going over to visit extended relatives living in New York State. They changed their birth dates and birth town. Maybe they just simply didn't remember when or where they were born, years after they were actually born. SOME THE KEY NAMES IN THE FAMILIES CHANGED OVER THE YEARS
1. "Wifrom" / Billianiel / Willson / Willanie / Billings / Billanis/ Bellaire/ Blair / Blais / "Blake" and Etc.
2. "Belippe" / Philipe / Philip / Phillip/ Phillips and Ect.
3. Bellvue, Belrose, Bohannon, Bourgeois, Brow, Bushey
4. Cameron, Champagne, Coone, Cota, Coulombe, Cou
5. Gardner, Greeno, Guyette
6. Hakey, Hanks, Hance, Hogg, Hogue Hoague
7. Jerome, Gerome, Salmon,Girard even went by Brown and Etc.
8. Lacombe, Ladoux, Lafar(Tiriac) Lafarrer,Lafrance, Lafleur, Laforet, Lampan, Langevin, Langlois, Lanoue, Lapan, Laplant(Plante), Laroque, Larose. Laurent, (St. Lawrence), Lavigne
9. Parizo, Partlow, Patnode, Proulx (Pru
10. Ramo (Raymond), Richard, Riel, Ryia (rea
11. Sawyer, Savage, St. Denis, Dennis, St. Francis, St. John, St. (Peter)
12. Dufresne, Ashe, Ashely, Ash and Ect.
13. Kings, Roy, Roi, Leroy and Etc.
14. Benoit, Benware, Bone, Lemas, Beaune, Bean, Benway, Bonn and Etc.
Old Antoine travels
This is want the Vermont Eugenics wrote on Antoine
Old Antoine Philip did not travel the way his children did. He lived for a long time in Highgate, Vermont.
Then moved out toward Fort Ethan Allen in Burlington, Vermont. Antoine died in South Burlington, Vermont.
The eugenic said the Saying was Old Antoine one time lived in Canada the reason Old Antoine came back to Vermont from Canada was because of the War with the Fenians (Old Antoine was born in Vermont at Lake Memphremagog in a wigwam.) No, Antoine Phillips Sr. consistantly indicated that he and his wife Catherine were born in Quebec, Canada and came from that Province, throughout his listings in the Census records, etc.
Old Antoine was of Indian ancestry and it had something to do with the Kickapoo Indians (Old Antoine was supposedly Abenaki) This is was due to a "parade" out of Keiser Pond onto the main road through Danville, VT that they the Phillips and Gypsy Devil Jake Way's families were PRETENDING to BE Kickapoo Indians, soliciting whatever they could get in sympathy, from the townfolks, in their destitution. When their real identities became quickly known, they were "driven back into Paradise Alley" with flung rotten vegetables thrown a them by the towns people. Antoine was probably related to some of the inhabitants of and Indian Reservation in South -Eastern Canada (through his wife's family) and it was Antoine himself who was indicated to be Mohawk as well, with possible connections to Kahnawake. Little is known about Old Antoine growing up only want (sic) Josephine Phillips said (the operative word is SAID, nothing substantiated or validated) about him. Josephine said Old Antoine lived at the "Place of Flint" in Vermont most of his life. There, is evidence of his father Old Phillips.
There is evidence of is vital statistics of himself and his children.
Old Antoine Phillips Sr. was born 1787 at Lake Memphremagog in Vermont in a Wigwam. His father was Chief Piel (Peter) Philip was born abt. 1730 in North Conway, New Hampshire or Freyeburg, Maine. This is NOT substantiated and is merely supposition and conjecture on the part of the Phillips Family and Josephine's alleged remembrances. Here one can "see" that this family attempts to "attach" itself to the "Indian Philip" of Coos County who signed the 1796 Land Grant.
Antoine mother Molly Missle (Marie Michelle) was born Abt 1745 in New Hampshire. She was famous for her Indian Moccasin making. Chief Piel (Peter) Philips was known as old Philip he was the Abenaki Indian Chief of
The Phillips Grant. Chief Piel Philip Great , Great Grandfather was called Yellow Feather.
The Phillips operated a trapping and hunting circuit through most of Northeastern Vermont, Northern New Hampshire, Northwestern Maine and Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada, including stays at Odanak where some of the family eventually settled after the fall of French Canada. In 1760
Philip returned to live a traditional life style until at least 1788. Henry Tuft's description of life among the Indians from 1772 - 1775 tells of two large family bands living between Lake Memphremagog and Lake Umbagog. Old Philip, Mali, swasson, Susap, Tornhegan, are all names mentioned in his writings. The following is from Bea Nelson's writings (see below in this same blog posting) In 1796 Philip, older and tired, was living in the Indian Stream republic area traveling to Lake Memphremagog and the central Connecticut River Valley. It was one of these latter trips that he met up with some Anglo (White) American land speculators. We do not know the circumstances of the land sale but we do known that Philip, Indian Chief of the Abenaki from the St. Francis tribe (the same that
inhabited the Lake Mamhlawbagak (Memphremagog), sold some 3,000 square miles straddling the border to four men. Thomas Eames and 3 associates that called themselves the Eastern Company. The price was a simple promise to keep Philip and his two wives well fed and clothed for the rest of their lives and allow other band members Fishing and hunting rights on the land in perpetuity (forever). Of course, society didn't have Nursing Homes, Social Security or 401-K Retirement Savings in 1796. Naturally Old Philip the Indian etc. wanted to ensure their elder years were lived in comfort, considering most of the rest of the People had by then settled at Odanak. I have a copy of the deed. This land sale was actually illegal. It was NOT illegal because those men who signed that Land Grant with Old Indian Philip, didn't KNOW what the Federal Government was doing, any more than Indian Philip did! They didn't have radio's, cellphones, television news and the internet in 1796. Since the Federal Non-intercourse Act of 1791 prohibited any agency, other than the U.S. Government from buying Indian lands within territory claimed by the United States (as about half of this parcel did) Also in 1793 the Continental Congress wrote up a law forbidding private citizens to buy land from the Indians. I have a copy of this land transaction.
The state of New Hampshire had a similar law on the books as early as 1719. The land was of little agricultural use to the purchasers who turned around and resold it to Naive English Settlers at considerable profit.
When settlers first came to the Sandy river Village in 1781 in Farmington, Maine there were Abenaki families living in the area. Old Philip was living at Farmington Falls, which was the site of the Old Ammessecontee Village. Old Philip soon moved away. He was the Philip who sold the Indian stream land to Thomas Eames in 1796. Philip died about a year later in Northumberland , New Hampshire under the care of his friends Thomas Eames. Philip was probably in his late eighties when he died. Abenaki hunters continued to trade in the Sandy River area for many years after.
Old Antoine wife Catherine Cadaive or Cadieux the only thing Grandma Josephine knew on her that her Grandmother Catherine "Great- Grandmother was Autumn Wind who's father was a Great Chief of her people Grandmother Josephine said they were Indian she said they came from Canada. My mother said her mother Josephine Phillips would talk about Chief Joseph who visited from Canada. Mom said her mother talk in Indain to her or French she didn't talk much in English. Mom said " Josephine said she grow up at the "Place of Flint" in Vermont. These are statements of rememberance, NOT FACTS that are in anyway substantiated or sourced in this book. I haven't been able to find anything on my mother's great-great grandmother. Mom said she had a name of Marie or Autumn Wind. I hope some day I can find out who my G-G-G Grandmother was.
Phillips descendent of King Philip
The Philips (Phillips) name is of Native American descendent from" King Philip". The English called him) Metacomet descendants of Massasoit of the Wampanoag, Narragansett. And married into the Pequot tribes, some of them scattered from the New England area in the 1600 to 1800s- some possibly to Canada. Definitely to Nova Scotia (surnames Mingo, Philip, Phillips and etc. and other parts of Ohio, Michigan, Minnesota, and probably other Midwestern States of North America. (So,  ALL of the Phillips' in all of N'DAKINNA are related? Even the one's that come from ENGLAND like John Phillips whom married Ann Burden and lived in the Missisquoi Bay area? Just because two people have the same surname, does not mean they come from the same families) To escape the English and later on because they're tribal lands were sold or taken by the English. Among the records of the Abenaki in Swanton, Vermont are land rights in the area going back hundreds of years. Among the earliest documents are King Phillips War papers, recognizing lands ceded to the Abenaki by the English following the 1675 insurgency of Metacom, a Massasoit Chief (dubbed King Phillip by the English) who united various tribes, including the Abenaki, to halt colonial encroachment onto their lands. The Abenaki were among the most intransigent warriors in Metacom's alliance. Holding out after tribes to the south had surrendered. One document on file at the tribal office (is a 91- year lease to one James Robertson's) who was granted timber exploitation rights on Abenaki lands in return for rent in the form of corn and yearly payments of "Spanish dollars" (Gold) Another man named Hilliker had a similar lease. Robertson's lease lasted from 1765 to 1856. I have a copy of this lease.
However, in the chaos of the American Revolution and conflicting claims to Vermont's territory by New Hampshire and New York, surveyors with Ethan Allen's and Ira Allen the Green Mountain Boys - the real inheritors of the realm divided lands among Vermont's most prominent Pioneer Families. Ignored Native Sovereignty (No, more likely as not, the Abenaki GAVE UP their "sovereignty" by not remaining a solidified observable varifiable, cohesive, continous-through-time COMMUNITY) when they formed the Onion River Land Company, in 1773, and sold Missisquoi Abenaki Lands without "Deeds or Titles".
Tricks of the trade in chartering a town Ethan and Ira Allen Used. Benning Wentworth Grants in present Vermont came under New York control and had to be regranted by New York for fees, which the settlers were unwilling to pay. Ethan Allen's answer was simple he refused to pay and chased away anyone trying to claim his land. A much more complicated device, used in some towns, was to have all landowners sign over their land to one person, who then, technically, owned the entire town. He went to New York and secured a regrant made out to him and a group of New Yorkers. By prior agreement, one or two, of the New Yorkers (the rest were" dummies" signing their names out of friendship or for token payments. Paid all the fees and were paid back in land. The Vermonter, returning with the
new charter, deeded back as much land as possible to the original owners. Some of the land was lost to the New York speculators, but the settlers got their new charter with little or no cash out lay.
The Abenaki whose power wasn't great enough to fight English Laws who broke the Abenaki powers more with massacre, disease, starvation and many Abenaki leaving into Canada during the French and Indian War and Revolution, had little ability to stop the Europeans. Despite having signed peace treaties with England in the colonial era, the Abenaki have never had United States recognition, and had Vermont State recognition but briefly. This was between 1976 when Gov. Thomas Salmon officially conferred it, and 1977 when Gov. Richard Snelling rescindect (sic) it. Richard Snelling realized that Thomas Salmon had granted VT state recognition based on "romantic notions" and that the Swanton group led by Homer St. Francis had not submitted ANY genealogical validation whatsoever to prove that they were indeed Abenakis. Thats why the "Recognition" was rescinded. In 1993, the State dismissed most of the charges and passed a bill granting the Abenaki "Cultural recognition" by the State Historical Preservation Division. This bill encouraged preservation of sites and artifacts, and declared the first week of May "Abenaki" Cultural Heritage Celebration week". But some Abenaki criticized a policy of " selective recognition" which encouraged Abenaki theme tourism without addressing fundamental rights.
In the United States, the Government does not officially recognize the Abenaki. This makes the Abenaki upset because they do not have hunting or fishing rights, they cannot sell arts and crafts under Indian craft laws, and other American Indians don't always recognize or cooperate with them. The Abenaki want to be recognized as a true Indian Tribe. All it takes, is to show and provide the legitimately SOURCED genealogical evidence, historical social histories that can be verifiable by other supporting documentation, etc. and perhaps the other Native Communities and the Government of the United States would perhaps not hesitate to recognize or cooperate with these various New England "incorporated groups" of people who have are claiming to be "Abenakis".
On May 3, 2006 the Abenaki got back State Recognition Gov. Jim Douglas sign the Bill. No, what Gov. Jim Douglas did was recognize the historical Abenakis for the contributions they made to the State of Vermont. He did not recognize the contemprorary groups who claim to be the Abenakis of Vermont, as being the Abenakis connected to the historical Abenaki communities.
Robertson's Lease, May 28, 1765
This is one of the most compelling pieces of evidence refuting Ira Allen's assertions that our ancestors abandoned Vermont. According to the terms of this lease, the land area in question, an area on the Vermont side of Missisquoi Bay about four and one-half miles wide by almost three miles in length, was legally under Abenaki ownership all men by these presents, that we Daniel Poorneuf, Francois Abernard, Francois Joseph, Jean Baptiste, Jeanoses, Charlotte, widow of the late chief of the Abenackque nation at Missisque, Marian Poorneuf, Theresa, daughter of Joseph Michel, Magdalene Abernard, and Joseph Abomsawin, for themselves, heirs, assigns, etc., do sell, let, and concede unto Mr. James Robertson, merchant of St. Jean, his heirs, etc., for the space of ninety one years from the 28th day of May, 1765, a certain tract of land lying and being situated as follows, viz: being in the bay of Missisque on a certain point of land, which runs out into the said bay and the river of Missisque, running from the mouth up said river near East, one league and a half, and in depth north and south running from each side of the river sixty arpents, bounded on the bank

Now the condition of this lease is, that if the aforesaid James Robertson, himself, his heirs, and assigns or administrators, do pay and accomplish unto the aforesaid Daniel Poorneuf et als, their heirs, etc., a yearly rent of Fourteen Spanish dollars, two bushels of Indian corn and one gallon of rum, and to plow as much land for each of the above persons as shall be sufficient for them to plant their Indian corn each year, not exceeding more than will serve to plant one quarter of a bushel for each family, to them and their heirs and assigns; for which and every said article will and truly accomplished the said James Robertson is to have and to hold for the aforesaid space of time, for himself, his heirs, etc., the aforesaid tract of land as mentioned aforesaid, to build thereon and establish the same for his use, and to concede to inhabitants, make plantations, cut timber of what sort or kind he shall think proper for his use or the use of his heirs, etc., and for the performance of all and every article of the said covenant and agreement either of the said parties bindeth himself unto the other firmly by these presents.
Source: Vermont Historical Society, Volume 6, P. 105-106
Abenaki / Bedel Land Deed of 1798
In 1798, several Abenaki of St. Francis signed a deed for The Bedel Land Company for lands in northern New Hampshire.
(taken from Philip's Grant Papers, 6.)
Chief Shoasin Manwermet
Chief Taksos
Capt. Cezar
Capt. Benedict.
Capt, Portned
Capt. Francois Joseph, (Annance)
Capt. Joseph, (possibly Saonalemit)

Indeed it was these seven Chief's or Speaker's that traveled southeast into New Hampshire from "St. Francis" or Odanak, Quebec, Canada in October 1798, to Concord, New Hamsphire, and protested to the Legislature of New Hampshire, the action of Philip two year before (1796), in Philip's selling tribal land. The Odanak representative's claimed the right to speak and act on behalf of the Abenaki People as a whole. Their leader, Captain Cezar, "carried the responsibility" of Orator or Speaker to St. Francis/ Odanak. Captain Cezar declared that Philip, the old Indian, had no tribal rights; Philip was an imposter. Captain Cezar, the other Sogomon's (Chiefs or Speakers), and the tribe disavowed all of Indian Philip's acts.
In their own actions, these seven Speakers coming from Odanak in 1798 would sell the true title to the Coös Region. Including far more than Indian Philip pretended to convey the previous June of 1796. These Odanak representatives would deed all of the northern New Hampshire area from Haverhill on the Connecticut River (Kwenitegw or Long River in Abenaki) to the Ossipee River on the border of Maine--north to the line between the United States and the government of Great Britain (which later became the Province of Quebec, Lower Canada), except for one town the Abenaki had already sold.
The members of the NH Legislature looked upon the Abenakis proposal as absurd, for the State of NH already had most of the lands being offered. Yet, three PRIVATE individuals surmised that such a piece of paper could be valuable to them. Moody Bedel of Haverhill, NH had heard of the valley of the Upper Connecticut throug his townsman David Gibbs, He may have known about it earlier during his travels with his father Timothy Bedel in the campaigns against Canada during the Revolutionary War--he being a boy of 12 years at that time. Or Moody Bedel may have visited the area of northern NH more recently, for Gibbs and Nathaniel Wales had settled there in 1790--pitched, as it was called--on the land where they camped the year before. They had put up cabins and had cleared farms, moved up with their families soon thereafter. Gibbs has later moved to St. Simoneau in nearby Canada. Together, the three men, Moody Bedel, Nathaniel Wales, and David Gibbs, paid the seven Odanak Indians the sum of $3,100.00 for the deed to northern New Hampshire. Eventually they called themselves the Proprietors of Bedel's and Associates' (or "Other's") Grant, and became known as the Bedel Company. In contrast to the Eastman Company, they were oriented toward the north, sold land to men of nothern NH, VT, and Canada, had no pretensions to legal and political power, and were entirely repsonsible for the early settlement.
Source: Page 12 and 13, Chapter 4 "Two Land Companies, 1798 of the book entitled, "Indian Stream Republic: Settling a New England Frontier 1785-1842", by Daniel Doan. It is an excellent read, and I highly recommend it as resource into the historical dynamics of the time period.
To all Persons to whom these presents shall come Greeting,--Know ye that I Philip an Indian of America, now resident in Upper Coos & Chief thereof, For & in consideration of the Sum hereafter names for which I have received Security to my full satisfaction of Thomas Eames of Northumberland in the County of Gracton & State of, New Hampshire & his associaties, namely John Bradley & Jonathan Eastman of Concord, County of Rockingham, & Nathan Hoit of Moultonborough in the County of Strafford, all in the State of New Hampshire, Esqrs. all my peculiar friends--I this day have given, bargained, sold, released, conveyed & confirmed, & by these presents do give, grant, bargain, sell, convey & confirm to them the said Thomas, John, Jonathan & Nathan, their heirs & assigns forever, all that tract or parcel of Land & waters situate within the following boundaries--vis Beginning at the east side of Conneetticook, now called Connecticut River, at the mouth of hte Ammonoosuck River--then up said Ammonoosuc River to head pond, to the carrying place-then across the carrying place to a small pond on the head of Pewmpelusuck or dead river-then down said river to Andrewscoggin river-then up Andrewscoggin River to the Lake Umbagogg including all the waters of said Lake & Islands, from said Lake, up Andrewscoggin river, to Allogunanabagogg lake including all the waters and Islands in said lake, then up said Andrewscoggin River to Molleychungomuck lake-thence along the easterly side of said Lake to the out let of Mooselumegantick-then up said river to said Lake Mooseluckmegatick, including all the waters & Islands thereof-then across the carrying place Quasuktecuck-thence down said River til it empties into Awsisgowassuck river to the the carrying place that leads into Awseecunticook river, or St. Frainces river-thence down said River til it falls into the branch which empties from Lake Mamsloobagogg-then up said River to Skessawannoock lake-then p said River to said Mamsloobagogg, including all the waters & Islands thereof-from thence up Sasskeecoowanggawnall river to the head thereof-then across the carrying place to the head of-then down said river to Connecteecook or Connecticut river Nulheagawnuck-then down said river, including all the Islands thereof, to the mouth of Ammunoosuck river.
the place begun at- agreeably to a plan I have this day given to them their heirs & assigns forever, with the following conditions & reservations-namely that I reserve free liberty to hunt all sorts of wild game on any of the foregoing territores, and taking fish in all of the waters thereof, for myself my heirs and suksessors & all Indian Tribes forever. Also liberty of planting four bushels of corn & beans; & this my trusty friend Thomas, having given me security to furnish me & my Sqaw with provisions & suitable clothing which I have accepted in full, I have for myself & in behalf of all Indians who hunted on, or inherited any of the foregoing lands or waters, forever quitclaimed & sold as aforesaid to them the said Thomas, John, Jonathan, & Nathan as a good Estate in fee simple. And do covenant with them that myself & my ancient Fathers forever & at all times, have been in possession of the above described premises & that I have good right to & will warrant & defend the same to them the said Thomas, John, Jonathan, & Nathan their heirs & assigns forever against the claims of all or any persons whatsoever.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand, Seal & Signature, this twenty eighth day of June 1796.
Signed Sealed & Dld. in presence of
Ely Buel
Jeremh. Eames
Philip X Indian Chief (Seal)
Molley X Messell (Seal)
Mooseleck X Sussop (Seal)

State of New Hampshire Grafton ss June 30th 1796. Personally appeared Philip Indian Chief, Molley Messell & Mooselek & acknowledged the foregoing instrument by them respectively subscribed, to be their volutary act & Deed, before me Jerh. Eames Justice peace.
Philip, Abenaki Indian Chief, and Philip's Grant
(Orleans and Essex Counties)
By Bea Nelson who was in communication with Tom O'Bomsawin in the 1996-1998 time-frame. She was also in communication with Kevin Parsons, and Howard F. Knight Jr. as well.
The Wabanaki (Abenaki) portions of the history of the Northeast Kingdom has been sadly neglected or overlooked by historians, ethno historians, archaeologists, and local historical societies. One of these is the background of Philip, Indian Chief and Philip's Grant. It seems ironic that Metallak, Philip's son, and Mali Agate (Molly Orcutt) members of his band, have more notoriety.

Philip, called by the English, was baptized Piel (Abenaki for Peter) or Pierre (French). (Where is the sourced Baptismal Record?) He was born around 1730 near the Saco River in the vicinity of North Conway NH or Fryeburg ME and was considered a Pigwacket Abenaki whose family moved north into the Arosaguntacook, Nulheganook and Arnarascoggin Abenaki Band areas when he was young.
At some point he married Molly Missile (Marie Michelle) a New Hampshire Indian who was famous for her moccasin making. They had several children the youngest being Metallak born about 1750, on the upper Adroscoggin River. Between war interruptions (French and Indian
Wars, 1755-1760) the extended family operated a trapping and hunting circuit through most of what is now northeastern VT, northern NH, northwestern ME, and the Eastern Townships of Quebec, Canada; including stays at Odanak where some of the family eventually settled. After the fall of French Canada in 1760, Philip returned to live a traditional lifestyle until at least 1788. Henry Tuft's description of life among the Indians from 1772-1775 tells of two large family bands living between Lake Memphremagog and Lake Umbagog. Old Philip, Mali, Swasson, Susap, Tomhegan, are all names mentioned in his writings.
The Times
During the American Revolution (1775-1783) Philip was the leader of an Indian Band in northern NH that is usually identified as Cowasuck but in reality was Arosaguntacook, or St. Francis Indians. This band joined the rebel cause, which was unusual for Abenaki who tried to stay neutral. The English called Philip the Chief of the Cowasucks, a typical Euro American blunder that still confuses the historic record! Yet, Odanak sent their representative 7 "S8g8mons" in  October of 1798 to vehemently state that Indian Philip was a FRAUD, and an IMPOSTER.
After the Revolution, when the peace accord was signed in 1783, the border was drawn along the 45th parallel. This boundary line between British Canada and Colonial United States cut right through the Abenaki homeland and territories. The Abenaki weren't considered in any of the agreements even though Abenaki men fought on both sides during the Revolution.
Vermont became the 14th state in 1791 and settlement pushed up the Connecticut River valley and on into the Memphremagog and Nulhegan watersheds. The Land companies claimed that no Indians lived in this area, and that they were just passing through on hunting trips. Vermont Abenaki descendants are still paying for this one! Paying for this, how so? Contemporary people today who are claiming to be genealogically the descendants of the historical Abenakis (without having the requirement placed on them to show and provide that genealogical evidence), have shown and provided NO clear and convincing evidence (genealogical, historical or social) that is verifiable, that they descend from the historical Abenakis. Having ancestral people in one's ancestral lineage, who were identified as "colored", "negro", "Indian" or even "Native American", let alone "Le Sauvage", does not identify that ancestor or ancestors as being "Abenaki". Seems to my thinking, that after 214 years since the signing of the Philip's Land Grant, that these "members" of the Missisquoi St. Francis Sokoki/ and or Nulhegan Inc.'s, are a little late in protesting the alleged illegality of the Land Grant itself.
On the British Canada side of the border, in 1792, Abenaki lands (taken over as Crown Wastelands) were opened to settlement by English speaking Protestants and loyalists, mostly New Englanders. All that the St Francis Indians retained were their age-old hunting grounds and family band village sites. Only 8,150 acres were granted to 17 families in Dunham Township. In contrast, Asa Porter, a colonel in the British army was granted over 60,000 acres in Brome Township for his services.
Philip's Grant
In 1796 Philip, older and tired, was living in the Indian Stream Republic area and traveling to Memphremagog and the central Connecticut River valley. It was on one of these latter trips
that he met up with some Anglo-American land speculators. We do not know the circumstances of the land sale, but we do know that Philip, Indian Chief, Abenaki from the St Francis tribe, (the same that inhabited the Memphremagog region) sold some 3,000 square miles straddling the border to four men; Thomas Eames and 3 associates that called themselves the Eastern Company. The price was a simple promise to keep Philip and his two wives well fed and clothed for the rest of their lives and allow all other band members fishing and hunting rights on the land in perpetuity.

The 3,000 square miles included: from Umbagog and Mooselookmeguntic Lakes in the East (the headwaters of the Megalloway and Androscoggin Rivers; South to the junction of the Ammonoosuc with the Connecticut; West to the western shore of Lake Memphremagog up the Clyde and along the Nulhegan; and North to the junction of the Salmon and St Francis Rivers. Some of the land had already been colonized by English and Anglo-American settlers. Sherbrook was begun in 1744 and the first US census of 1790 lists 700 white colonists in the upper Connecticut-Memphremagog region.
This land sale was actually illegal: since the Federal Non-Intercourse Act of 1791 prohibited any agency other than the US government from buying Indian lands within the territory claimed by the United States (as about half of this parcel did.) Also in 1793 the Continental Congress wrote up a law forbidding private citizens to buy land from the Indians. The state of NH had a similar law on the books as early as 1719. The land was of little agricultural use to the purchasers who turned around and resold it to naive English settlers at considerable profit.
In October of 1798, Abenaki chiefs at Odanak sold virtually the same land to the Bedel Company for $3,100.00. It was this sale that was the basis for New Hampshire's claim to the Indian Stream Territory. Canada at the same time was claiming it. But, the inhabitants were claiming independence from both and had formed the Indian Stream Republic with their own government: a constitution, bill of rights, courts and judges, and a code of laws. In 1835 the situation became volatile and the "Indian Stream War" came to a head when NH decided to send in its militia. It was not until 1840 that the town of Pittsburg was organized by the State of NH, which included the Indian Stream Republic and that portion of Philip's Grant.
Again a large section of Philip's Grant (Abenaki homelands) has become controversial due to its value for its wilderness, game, and beauty. Could this also be an illegal purchase? .... Or ... is it?
Old Pete's daughter Josephine
and Husband Frank Blake
The Blake's sold baskets, willow tables, chairs, miniature canoes, Snowshoe's and etc. They caned Chair bottoms told fortunes and traded horses.
There was a saying going around the Phillips and Blake's swapped wives like they did their Horses.
Bald Mountain New York a camping Place where the Blake's and Phillips went quiet off through out the year.
Josephine (Phillips) Blake said her family always lived in Vermont but traveled to Maine, New York, New Hampshire, and far north as Trois Rivieres, Canada. Many of the Phillips stayed in the Swanton and Highgate area.
Josephine said her father Old peter was the Chief of the tribe when he died in Peacham, Vermont. She said Vermont called him King of the Gypsies.
She said her Great Grandfather Chief Piel (Pierre) Philip (Old Philip of the Philip's Grant) was Chief for many years, then her grandfather Old Antoine Phillips was Chief. She said her father was named after his Grandfather Chief Piel (Pierre) Philips.
Josephine said her mother Delia Bone was born on the Caughewaga reservation in Quebec, Canada. Her Father Old Peter Phillips was born on the Mazipskoik the "Place of Flint" in Vermont. Her Grandfather Old Antoine (Anthony) Phillips was born 1787 at Lake Memphremagog (Pronounced Mem-Fre-May-gog) in Vermont in a White birch Wigwam. Her Great Grandfather Piel (Pierre) Philip was born abt. 1730 on Saco River.
Here again, the Phillips Family, claiming to be Abenakis, attempt to genealogically "attach" themselves to the historically documented "Indian Philip" of Coos County, New Hampshire in 1796, taking Josephine (nee: Phillips) Blair's alleged "oral history"/ rememberances, or what she or they would like to believe, and trying to make it FACTUAL.

This is what the eugenics said about the Blake Family
Josephine married Frank Blake. Josephine and Frank were still traveling in 1926 with the Gypsy Train.
There was talk that a owner of the feed store in Brandon, Vermont who telephoned to certain other people it was learned that some years ago a Gypsy Tribe by the
name of Blake camped down in Brandon, Vermont. They were very undesirable people. They stole some things from the people on whose land they camped and they run (sic) up a big feed bill at the feed store and skipped off without paying them. This alleged "criminal activity and history" is why they (the Phillips Family, Jerome's, Way's, Woodward's, and so many other families within and around Vermont) were being "targeted" by the Eugenics (Ms. Harriett Abbott was a predominate field researcher for the Eugenics Survey of VT headed by Henry Perkins at the University of Vermont in Burlington, Vermont). These families were merely being IDENTIFIED...because of "criminal activity" i.e. stealing. The Eugenics did not institutionalize, incarcerate (imprison, jail or confine) or sterilize anyone. Nor did they identify anyone as specifically being "Abenaki" "Mohawk" though the Survey did identify based on the collected "oral statements of Phillips descendants whom they spoke to or heard about, that they were of "French, Negro, Black, and or Indian" ancestry. Ms. Abbott even went so far as to attempt communication with Kahnawá:ke, the Mohawk Community near Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The Eugenics Survey of Vermont merely IDENTIFIED suspected Families of whom they considered genetically inferior, sexually deviant, retarded, or diseased with T.B., etc., and alerted (put on notice) "other" agencies whom had allied with the Eugenics Survey of VT, such as the Children's Aide Societies in various New England States (such as N.H. and Maine), and numerous agencies that worked within "the system".
Mom said her Grandfather Old Pete Phillips owned a farm in South Burlington where they lived in the wintertime her grandfather called South Burlington the plains because it was flat land. Mom said her grandfather Old Pete made baskets and other things to sell to the tourists. She said basket making had been in her family always. Mom said she travel with her family selling baskets all the time, up to 1933 after she married dad they only went once in a while. She said her grandfather Old Pete always went down route 15 out of South Burlington to peddle their baskets because it was an easier route to travel with their wagons back then most roads were impassible to travel on. They went as far as Hardwick, Vermont. Old Pete Phillips had to have gone a bit further than than, because he stayed at Paradise Alley in the Keiser Pond area before the time of his death in December 1906. Mom said growing up was hard because they were taunted by the town people and always run out of some towns. For alleged stealing etc., and "pretending" to be "Kickapoo Indians". She was happy when she married dad she didn't have travel and sleep in wagons any more.
Mom said dad's family is Abenaki Indians but they settled down on farms and tried to be white to fit in for they could own land.
Mom said her father Frank Blake owned harness racing horses and raced them at county fairs and the Saratoga Racetrack in Saratoga, New York. Frank was run over by a car at the tracks and killed.
Saying is someone bet big on his horses and lost the bet, then ran him over. Frank Blake is my Grandfather.
Frank Blake married Old Pete's daughter Josephine (nee: Phillips). Frank's father is Alexander Blake (Blais)

Frank's mother is Louise King. Alexander father is Billings/B illanis/Blair/Blais/ Alexander mother is Unknown. Alexander Grandfather is Wifrom/ Wilsome/ Willianie/ Wilform. Alexander grandfather Married Jemoganx Wilsomquax. They are listed in the Odanak Families and on the James Robertson's Lease. For a yearly rent of fourteen Spanish dollars, two bushels of Indian corn and one gallon of rum. And to plow as much land each of the persons, as shall be sufficient for them to plant their Indian corn each year, not exceeding more than will serve to plant one quarter.
Of a bushel for each family, to them and will serve to plant one quarter of a bushel for each Family. To them and their heirs as signs. This lease was for 91 years on the 28th day of May 1765 to May 1854.
There is a copy of the Robertson's lease 1765 written in large old-fashioned hand Writing at the Abenaki Tribal Council in Swanton, Vermont. The original is in Canada. There's another old copy down at the University library in Burlington, Vermont. I have a typed copy from the Vermont Historical Society.
Some of the Phillips and Blake have lived in Houseboats on Lake Champlain. Traveling up and down both the New York and Vermont shores peddling their baskets, canoes, snowshoes, Willow tables and chairs. The ones that traveled in wagons owned canoes to go fishing.
They hunted all their meat such as Deer, rabbit, Bear, Moose, Pheasant, Duck, Geese, Turkey and etc. Many of the Phillips and Blake's are listed on their birth records and death records as basket makers and Gypsies. Old Pete Phillips was listed in the New York census as race Indian in the year of 1870. Where is the source of this NY Census record? Vermont listed him and his wife Delia on their death records as colored. The family wanted Old Pete and his wife listed Indian there true race but Vermont choose not to. Actually, on Old Pete Phillips Death Certificate, they wrote "White" first, and then wrote over the top of that, with "Colored" on December 22, 1906 in Peacham, Caledonia County, Vermont. I have previously posted his Death Certificate on this blog on September 07, 2010.
The Phillips and Blake's did a lot of name changing over the years so it took many years tracking down their History.
The Dyer family traveled with the Gypsies (Phillips and Blake's). George Blake son of Frank Blake and Josephine (Phillips) married a Dyer girl.
This following information is coming from Sherry Gould of Bradford, N.H. that was given to Albert Leo Phillips of Belmont, N.H. whose son Thomas Leo Phillips of Hardwick, VT is on April St. Francis-Merrill's "Tribal Council" in Swanton, VT.
Simon Dyer's is George Blake's father-in-law and Simon Dyer's father name was Lapet Dyer and they said he was a very small man and very short. He spoke only French. His wife was a very tall person. She was Indian how much is not known. In the spring they would start out on the road sleep anywhere they could even
make a tent out of a wagon shaft and wagon with blankets or anything they had to make a tent so they could sleep under it. They would cane chair bottoms, make baskets; they would cut down an Ash and Elm trees and pound them out and cut them in strips for their basket making. In the fall they would husk corn for farmers for pay. They would take the Cornhusk with them for they could make corn husk mats to put by the door out side. They sold them door, to door for money to help live on in the winter months. In the winter they stayed home and made baskets for next year season. By saving some of their money they were able to make it through the wintertime.

Josephine (nee: Phillips) Blair died in 1959 in Queensbury, Warren County, New York State. Josephine Phillips was born on March 08, 1880 in Colchester, Chittenden County, Vermont. She wanted her sons to bury her the Abenaki way. Her sons build a scaffold in the back yard had her body on it and was going to burn her body. It was her wishes to be buried that way. Her daughters Ida, Marceline and Lillian wanted her buried in a grave, they didn't want their mother's body burned. The daughters called the
Local police to stop their brothers from burning there mothers body. The police came and told her Sons this isn't legally to do in modern times so they would have to stop or go to jail.
Josephine was buried in a grave at Union Cemetery in Fort Edwards, New York. She wanted on her death record that she was Indian. I have a copy of her Death Certificate and it doesn't listed her Indian.
Josephine my Grandmother liked smoking a corncob pipe. She made her own pipes by taking a dried cob of Corn and cut it to the length you want for the bowl. Hollow out the inside with a red-hot poker.
This turns the inside to charcoal, which mellows the smoke she said. Poke a hole in the pipe the size of the Stem for the stem fits in tight; cut a piece of fishing cane (of very small diameter) the length you need.
Remove the pith to hollow it out (using a stiff piece of wire) and insert it into the stem hole and then put in your stem now you have a real old fashion corn-cobpipe. They eventually burn up after they have been smoked awhile. She was always making new ones; she kept a bag of dried corncobs on hand to make her pipes.
Josephine played an accordion and her Husband played fiddle at dances. Their children also played different music instruments of modem times.
Aunt Ida Mae (Blake) Ash traveled with a white horse and buckboard in the 1950's in Shoreham, Vermont to the country store to do her shopping for the week. Her children wouldn't ride because of the name calling as they pasted the people of the town they were being called Gypsies.
I remember when I was little I asked my mother why we were called Gypsies, She said because we traveled like them.
The Blake's and Phillips, Ash and Jerome Families traveled with horses and buggies up to the late 50's. They farmed with horses up to the middle 1970's. The Blake's and Phillips continued traveling with horses and wagons and cars Trading Horses, making baskets, willow tables, stands, chairs, making birch bark canoes to sell the tourists until mid 1950's. Some of younger generation was (sic) too ashamed to carry on the trade. Some still make baskets even today to sell.
A 4th generation of Phillips has a shop were she makes baskets and sell them in Fort Ann, New York she makes the famous traditional ash baskets of her Abenaki heritage. Yvonne Phillips calls her shop Honest Injun" Baskets. Her Grandfather Ernest Phillips and Grandmother Peggy made baskets to sell as a little child she learned how to weave baskets from them. Yvonne makes dozens of different baskets. She has given demonstrations to numerous groups including local schools, civic organizations, libraries and historical associations/events. She was featured
on the channel 13 show "back Roads" in 2004. Her customers include collectors from as far away as Japan. April 2005 she was artist of the month from the Adirondack Region. She is a registered member of the Missisquoi Abenaki Tribe in Swanton, Vermont.
I remember my mother and her sisters and grandma Josephine Blake making fancy splint ash baskets and utility baskets to sell to the tourists in 1940's and 1950's in Salisbury, Vermont. We would go to Aunt Ida Mae Ash house, she lived near a swamp where they cut the ash trees to make the baskets. Grandma Josephine said the tree had too bee (sic) straight, no knots and big around enough too get many baskets out of it, the tree had too grow where it was wet for the growth rings came off easier. The ash tree was cut down and the bark removed then soaked in water for the log would peel easier. The bare log was placed on two logs to give it some height. Then pounded with a tool Grandma Josephine called a Wigebdemahigan it looked like a wooden hammer to me. The pounding separated the wood into thin plates along the annual growth rings, which could be pulled from the log Grandma Josephine called Wigebaiak (ash splints). The rough splints were used for coarse utility baskets or fish traps, however, fancy baskets required more processing they were first run through a gauge to cut them into uniform widths, then shaved down with a steel blade to make a smooth surface. The finished splints could then be coiled and stored. Mom also used other material necessary for some baskets Grandma Josephine called Walmogwkl (sweetgrass) often found growing in moist sunny locations. From the patch of sweetgrass mom would take some home to dry. Mom braided sweetgrass to bum as incense and put in our clothes to make them smell good. The basketry grass was left unbraided. Sweetgrass was harvested in the fall of the year. They made a lot of baskets in the wintertime to sell in the spring and summer. The women made three kinds of the fancy ash splints baskets, sweetgrass baskets, cowwiss baskets, and the varying-splint baskets. The men made the utility baskets more then the women. I have some of mom's baskets, cowwiss baskets, trout basket and utility baskets all them date back to the 1930's. I have willow table my father made and fish plug that dates back to the 1930's.
"Back Horse" Phillips
This information that follows comes from Howard F. Knight Jr., and as such it is dubious and very questionable as to it's historical accuracy.
Chief Richard Phillips was one of the Chiefs of Woodlands Band in 1981. Sachem Richard "Black Horse" Phillips of the Eastern Woodlands Clan/Band of the Abenaki Nation and Sachem "Joe" Pero of the Nolka Clan of the Cowasuck agree to form the Northeast Woodlands Band of the Cowasuck Abenaki Nation of Vermont in the "Fall of 1980.

Spring of 1981 Sachem Phillips suddenly quits (no reason was given) as the Band Sachem, takes over temporarily as the Band reorganizes after he takes the Ancient Cowasuck oath of being a servant of all the Cowasuck People that he will represent from that day forward. All Cowasuck Sachems must take this oath upon election to the position as a Sachem, whether it, be as a Sachem of a Band or of a larger Cowasuck group. Once take, it is binding for life. The said oath is administered by a fellow Cowasuck/Coos Sachem, or a Senior Elder of the Council. 

Douglas Lloyd Buchholz will be posting further documentary information regarding Richard "Blackhorse" Wilfred Phillips and "his connections" to Rudolph Kent Ouimette, Arthur William "Bill" Seymour, Howard Franklin Knight, Jr.
Phillips Families Genealogy
Antoine (Anthony) Phillips Sr. Born 1787 at Lake
Memphremagog, Vermont in a White Birchbark Wigwam Died Sept. 1, 1885 in South Burlington, Vermont No one seems to know where he is buried
Antoine was Chief of the Abenaki Indians

Father Chief Piel (Peter) Philip was Chief of the Abenaki Indians
Born abt. 1730 in North Conway, New Hampshire or Fryeburg, Maine
Died in New Hampshire
Mother Molly Missile (Marie Mitchell)
Born Abt. 1747 in New Hampshire
She was famous for Moccasin making
Chief Piel and Molly children:
1. Metallak born about 1750 on the upper Androscoggin River.
2. Antoine (Anthony) Phillips Sr.
Born 1787 at Lake Memphremagog, Vermont or Lake Mamhlawbagak in A White Birchbark Wigwam

Marriage I
Antoine (Anthony) Phillips Sr. Marriage I to Louise Myers (Mahers)
Children unknown

Marriage 11
Antoine Phillips Sr Marriage II to Catherine or Katherine or Marquerite Cadaive or Cadieux Catherine Born in Canada Abt. 1790 in Canada
Died no date
Buried near Foster Hill in Essex, Vermont
Married unknown probably Abt. 1805
Catherine parents unknown
Antoine was 19 years old when his first child was born with Catherine in 1806

Antoine and Catherine Children:
1. Michael (Mike) Philips Born 1806
Died April 12, 1912 in New York Pg. 4-52
2. Peter (Pierre) (Old Pete) Philips Sr. Born 1804 or 1809 Died Dec. 22. 1906 in Peacham, Vermont Pg.53-123

Yet again, one can review the above document page, and become aware that this Phillips Family claims that they are the descendants of Old Indian Philip of whom was considered "a Chief" by the Coos County historical Euro-American "settlers" (not so, by Odanak where it would seem that the majority of Old Philip the Indian's People relocated to, before June of 1796). Also that the contemprorary Phillips Family claim that Metallak (born sometime between 1727 and 1737 in the area of the Androscoggin river area) was Antoine Phillips father. Antoine Phillips married to "Catherine Cadaive." Yet, this document was located during a search of Ancestry.com some time ago. It neither indicated the fathers first name (just his surname of Philippe) and not that anyone mentioned in the Bapismal is indicated to be of the Abenakis, or a "Chief" of such tribe. Catherine Cadere dit Emery may or may not have been "Catherine Cadaive"? It would seem that this document is perhaps the Baptismal record of Antoine Phillips, Jr.?

136. Baptism of Antoine Philipp Jr.
7th day of July, 1834
St. Hyacinthe, Quebec, Canada
Notre Dame de Rosaire
He was "illegitime"?
son of Antoine Sr. (?) Philipp
Catherine Cadere dit Emery

Winifred "Morning Star" (nee: Jerome) Yaratz's book of "collected and compiled material," entitled "Brief History of the Abenaki Phillips and Blake Families And Genealogy" is a wonderful source of indicative yet limited "oral history" but regardless, it is unsubstantiated and for the most part, most of the genealogical information, like the 1870 NY Census (wherein it is alleged that Peter Phillips is identified as "Indian") is left without a "source" for the cited record. She just mentions the 1870 NY Census, as "if in passing".  It leaves one wondering...what is the exact Census page? How was the particular family composition written on that particular Census page? Who were the neighbors as listed perhaps on the Census?
Winifed (nee: Jerome) Yaratz self-identifies as a "Member of the Abenaki Nation in Swanton, Vermont, led by retrospectively-speaking, Homer Walter St. Francis Sr. and now that group is led by April Ann (nee: St. Francis) Rushlow - Merrill (Homer's daughter). I cannot help but consider this whole book (or at least the non-genealogical first half of it) as a Pro-supportive St. Francis Sokoki Incorporation "bent" to it's slant of writing.
There are "gaps and genealogical holes" including Winifred's "contradictions galore" throughout the book that ought to be have been sorted out, before she wrote such conclusions, turning alleged "oral histories" or "memoirs" as she stated this work would be, into something that appears to be written from factually verifiably sourced materials. Far from it. She has taken "suppositions", and alleged "oral history" and written these "pieces" that she has attempted to "fit together" AS FACTUAL; which in reality cannot be factual, without further sourced and convincing evidence being brought into this book itself.
I was allowed to borrow this book by Thomas Leo Phillips of Hardwick, Vermont during a visit at Thanksgiving 2009 (having been kindly invited to their home). I did, in FACT state that I would not share it with "anyone outside of the Phillips family". Yet, my intent in scanning the material therein, was to "quietly" source the content and conclusions of which Winifred Yaratz and obviously several others, had been making for some time.
In mid-2010 Donald Warren Stevens, Jr. emailed me inquirying about his own Phillips ancestry (and knowing that I was aware documentarily of his lineage) he inquired of my person, to share what I had, on his family ancestors etc. Who am I to restrict such a material such as Yaratz work, from a known Phillips descendant, or to tell them to go elsewhere and obtain such a work from someone else? Thomas Phillips certainly didn't trust Don Stevens. Why? Because Don Stevens was on the VCNAA and that pissed off April Merrill when she realized that she still couldn't "run the show" even when he was on the Commission as a member or as a Chairperson! Don Stevens said to me that he would merely use the material for his own genealogical purposes; not as a political tool. He was the one who wanted to keep our communications confidential. Why, I have no idea, but I do now. Had I foreseen how he (and Frederick Matthew Wiseman PhD) were going to USE this book of Winifred Jerome-Yaratz's "blood, sweat and tears" (not to forget the many other members of the Phillips family, such as Albert Leo Phillips who contributed to this book) I would NEVER have given Donald Stevens a single page of the scanned book, let alone anything else in my possession! Yet, he is a descendant of old Peter Phillips who died in Peacham, VT on December 22 1906; and my mind (at the time) would not let me in good conscious "withhold such information" from him or any other Phillips descendant. Who am I to say, "no, I can't give this material to you, you will have to find it elsewhere"? That's what Thomas Robert O'Bomsawin did with the Gordon Day audio language tape of Elvine Royce O'Bomsawin speaking Abenaki with Gordon Day...Thomas O'Bomsawin's response to me was, "I can't make a you a copy of this tape...its "restricted" and "copyrighted" ". It is THEIR families ancestors, not mine. Yet to use this material for "political gain or leverage" by these persons such as Donald Stevens and Frederick M. Wiseman PhD, makes me mentally nauseous! 
Subsequently, I am placing some of Yaratz's book pages, on this blog presently, in the hopes that viewers of this blog can "follow the created documents" that they are useing to solicite Legislative Recognition of their "Alliance" and or "incorporate group's in part" and come to realize the obvious ploys by Frederick M. Wiseman and Donald W. Stevens Jr. in their endeavor to gain "Vermont State Recognition" for their so-called "VT Indigenous Alliance" (i.e. these 4 or 5 incorporated groups "claiming to be Abenakis.")

Page 3: of Winifred Yaratz's Book
I would like to acknowledge the help of the following people. Without their help this history would not have been possible
My Husband James J. Yaratz who put with my long hours of doing this book.
My daughter Wendy a Blodgett whose encouragement convinced me to complete this book.
My sister Rita Muir, for wanting her Native History
My cousins who gave me a lot of Family History, Carol Stevenson Marion Julius Bambi Dingman Albert (Tom) and Shirley Phillips Raymond and Roxie Phillips
And to the memory of my Mother Marceline (Blake) Jerome, for trusting me with a lot of the Family Indian History. Who help identify how they lived within fear of revealing who they were.

So, it is BEFORE I move forward with the next posting, these documents are now available to reviewers of this blog, to review and evaluate them. That in simple step-by-step conclusion it is now shown and provided documentarily:

1. Thomas Robert O'Bomsawin of Odanak status did relocate from Odanak to Swanton, was employed by and advocated for Homer Walter St. Francis Sr. and in fact lived with "Chief" Homer St. Francis, where he met Daisy Goodman BEFORE they relocated and resided behind Doris Minckler's residence. Whereupon......

2. Thomas Robert O'Bomsawin decided to fight removal from behind Doris Minckler's home, using the Robertson's Lease of 1765 by switching his name to "Abomsawin", etc. Unsuccessful with that endeavor......

3. He and Daisy Goodman relocated their mobile home, children in tow, to North Stratford, Coos County, New Hampshire (to her mother's home along the Connecticut river) in the Spring of 1995.

4. Once settled in the Coos County, N.H. area, Thomas Robert O'Bomsawin then began researching the area regarding Philip's Land Grant of 1796 of Coos County, N.H.; and solicited people ca. April 1995 to 1998 to "come to meetings" (including my own person); Newton Washburn of Bethlehem; the Phillips descendants i.e. the Stone Family of East Stratford, N.H., to name a few. Eventually this group of gathered people would be called the "Abenaki Family Alliance". Later Thomas O'Bomsawin would, with the encouragement of his wife Daisy and others, would incorporate into the "Nidôbak, Incorporated" in August, 1995.

5. This Incorporation within the State of New Hampshire, "under the laws of the state" would eventually desolve and become defunct after March 14, 2000. Thomas O'Bomsawin, with his wife and children (Adam, Dane, Tagwongo "Autumn", Mali-Agat") would relocate eventually to the Farmington, Franklin County, Maine area after Daisy Goodman-O'Bomsawin graduated from Nursing School. Tom's brother, David Roland O'Bomsawin apparently stayed in the area of North Stratford, N.H. with his wife Vicki Rae nee: Beaton, who were also a part of the "Abenaki Family Alliance" retrospectively-speaking. David and Vicky Rae Beaton married in Reno, Washoe County, Nevada on August 03, 2000. They continue to reside in North Stratford, Coos County, N.H.

Over a period of time, I began to "sense" dynamic's changing between my "friends" and associations with particular people within various "Abenaki Cirles" (perhaps it was the distrust or paranoia towards my "friendship" with them, on their part), in particular with Thomas Robert O'Bomsawin and I witnessed as several vocal altercations developed in said retrospective friendship with him and Daisy Goodman. I began to "distance my associations" with "that circle of people". I just stopped visiting them eventually.

Hopefully, someone or some people will "see the documented connections" (as I have) in these documents being put on this blog. Meaning, Luke Andrew Willard's group appointing, nominating, or electing Donald Warren Stevens, Jr. is not simply "luck", or coincidence.

It is blantant manipulation and deceitfulness on the part of these people composing the "Vermont Abenaki Indigenous Alliance" i.e. Fred Wiseman Sr., Luke Willard, Don Stevens, and April Merrill, etc. All the while, these groups comprising the Vermont Indigenous Alliance (the Four Oganized Abenaki Bands) now "stack" the re-constructed Vermont Commission on Native American Affairs, with their own people/ representatives! These folks will continue to manipulate, deceive, distort, and continue their dishonesty against the Abenaki Ancestors. This is not 'just about selling their "Abenaki" artwork" .... Far from it. Time will tell.

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