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Sunday, December 11, 2011

Are the Barratt’s and or Lampman's "St. Francis/ Sokoki/Missisquoi” Members; or are they not? Part 8:

Addendum to the Petition for Federal Recognition
Dated January 10, 1986
In Repsonse to the "Letter of Obvious Deficiencies and Significant Omissions"
Dated (6/14/1983).
Part B

Page 311: The Alanum family name has not been identified in either the present day Odanak or Missisquoi communities; although it is possible the name is a shortened version of Alomkassat (Annome Quisse/Casset) family from Odanak with Missisquoi roots traced to Robertson’s lease. 1423

Footnote 1423. Day 1981: 85. This family had a close link to Missisquoi in the 1830’s as Marie Kaiser, Peter Medor’s (Medard Kazia) sister, married to an Alomkasset and settled into Odanak about 1830. [Ibid: 78 & Marie Kesia card in Medor cards in AA].

Page 314: “Other missionaries including those who knew about the ‘wandering’ [off-reserve/reservation] relatives of Mary Kesia (Kasia/Medor) from Odanak essentially wrote them off as intransigent and impossible to find, as did virtually all historians of that period as well. 1433

Footnote 1433. Tuckerman 1821:20-34: Shea 1855: 151.

Page 317: Perry himself maintained that “a few [at least 70] continued steadfastly to maintain their foothold on the soils which had belonged to their fathers” in Swanton, Highgate, at the Monument village from 1790 to 1800. 1462 This was the period of the Swatson tradition given in detail here in Section 1 which stated that the Morits, Lampman, Gardner, Lapan, St. Francis and Winters families were still living with Chief Swasson Tanagite (Joachim Morits) at the Monument.

Footnote 1462. Perry mss @1850: 241

Page 331: [III. Missisquoi/Odanak relations from 1800 to present. Response to Item # 3 of Letter of Obvious Deficiencies.]

3. “The historical relationship from 1800 onward between the Abenakis of Odanak and Becancour and those of the aboriginal Missisquoi area is not discussed at length in the petition. Please provide a more detailed discussion of this relationship in different periods up to the present, including social contacts, migration in either direction, and shared territory and social activitites.”

The relationship between Missisquoi and Odanak/Becancour after 1800 has been discussed in some detailed in the Petition as well as in Day (1981) and Moody (1979). 1479 This response will summarize and cross reference these sources. New data on the familial relations between the Lake Champlain, Odanak and Lake George Abenakis has recently come to light which also is summarized here. Most of the discussion focuses on relations between Lake Champlain and Odanak. Becancour seems to have closer direct ties to Odanak and the New Hampshire/Western Maine area and is not discurssed vis a vis Missisquoi here. 1480 There has already been extensive discussion in this this Addendum Part B about the Odanak/Missisquoi relationship from 1790 to 1920. 1481 The intention here is to complement….

Footnote 1479. Moody: 41,-4, 47-9,51-5, 61-4, 73-7, 82-3; Day 1981: 45-9, 52-62, 75-9, 82, 85-88, 91-3, 104-5. RP: 5, 9, 23, 30, 32-5, 41, 51, 55, 58-60, 62, 69, 73, 78, 82, 95, 107, 133, 137, 149, 151, 155, 171.
Footnote 1480. The Phillips family, one of the Central Families at Missisqoui, is an exception to the general pattern. This family is similar to others at Becancour, exhibiting many relationships with New Hampshire and Maine history. [See Phillips family cards in AA; & Phillips Central family history in Section V; & p 81 fn 744a here].

The St. Aubin/Benjamin branch of the Barrat Central family at Missisquoi is a minor exception to the pattern as well. They are a major family Becancour family to this day and appear in the early genealogies of St. Albans Bay families thorugh intermarriage with the Antoine Young [RP:59 & Family chart #’s 8 & 17 in Appendix 11]. Another branch has come down through the Benajmin Barrat line discussed earliler here into the Derosier Small family. [Addendum Part B: 201-2 fn’s 824-30; & Family chart # 18 in Appendix 11]. In that case, the early link was to the Lake Memphramagog region in the Coos and St. Francis River watersheds in the early 19th century where Odanak, Durham, Becancour, and Coos families overlapped in a pattern similar to and linked with Missisquoi. [See pp 73, 81, 85 fn 744, 231-2 fn’s 978-82, 264-5 fn’s 1121-3, 298 fn 1305 here in this Addendum Part B].

Page 334: Marie Kesia, Meda Kazia’s sister or cousin, was sent by Hick’s missionary society to ‘finishing school’ in Boston where she was earmarked to do just that! 1491

Footnote 1491. Day 1981: 78.

Page 339: In general, there are three basic family settlement patterns shared by Odanak and Missisquoi which show up in the records thus far. The first is exemplified by the Portneuf family. After 1800, the only clear indications of this Missiquoi family name is at Odanak. Thus far it appears that the family was entirely concentrated at Odanak after 1800. 1502

On the other extreme, families like the Maurice/Tanagite, Francis/St. Francis, Patenas/Patenode and Cajais’Kazia/Medor were barely present at all at Odanak and largely concentrated on Lake Champlain. 1503 There there are some families like Claude/Paganne/Glode, Capino/Pinawans/Crappo/Campbell, Benedict/Panadis/Paradis, Lazare, Hance/Annance/Herny/Anus, Watso/Mountain/Martin, Peter/St. Peter/Sabael and Laurent/Monlataque/St. Lawrence which have substantial familial lines in both regions. 1504

Also, Abenaki families like Mitchell, Denis, St. Denis, Thomas, Tahamont/Thompson, Joseph, Nicolas and Sabbatis/St. John/John have their strongest associations outside both communites with Lake George, Coos and other Abenaki enclaves while still having small family lines at Odanak and Missisquoi. 1505 Just the genealogical…

Footnote 1502. Day 1981:93, 105; Moody 1979:18,42-3,82-3; RP: 46,-7, 58-9, 95. See also Portneuf family cards in AA.
Footnote 1503. Day 1981:86, 78, 104-5; Moody 1979:41-2, 43 fn 22, 57-8, 63-4,73-4, 82-3; RP:58-65, 73-4, 76-83, 85-6, 207-210, 219, 222-5; & Family chart #’s 2, 3, 4 & 5-6 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 1504. Day 1981:76-9, 81-2, 86, 91: Moody 1979: 37-8, 51-5, 57, 60-1, 63-4, 73-5, 82-3; RP:54, 61-5, 73-4, 77-83, 95, 207-211, 222-3, 225; Family chart #’s 2, 3 & 5-6 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 1505: Moody 1979:44, 47-8, 6-1, 82-3; Day 1981:59-61; RP:57-65, 73-4. Note that the discussion in Secitons I and II of Addendum Part B here of several Odanak names appearing at Missisquoi/Lake Champlain in the 19th century. [See footnote #1485 above here]. There are also a number of the French/Abenaki names familiar at Odanak in evidence including Lapointe, Brisbois, Duhaime and others.

Page 340: …data for the families listed above and earlier in Sections I & II here suggests that a full accounting of all the Abenaki families would show extensive familial networking for social reasons throughout the 19th century. 1506

A clear argument can now be made that virtually all of the know Odanak Abenaki basket and tourist trade migration patterns in Western Vermont were a direct outgrowth of kinship relations with Lake Champlain Abenakis. The Benedicts, and now the Claudes, who came to Highgate Springs in the late 19th to early 20th centuries had Morits, Benedict/Bartemy and Glode/Ladue kin at Missisquoi. 1507 The Bluto family in the present community derive from the Claude/Paganne Missisquoi family, and the Gonyo Small family may be from “Missisquoi”. 1508

Sophie Molisse (Maurice/Morits) was known at Odanak to be from “Missisquoi”. She as a ‘traditional” who passed on many of the older oral traditions Gordon Day recorded from her grandson, Theophile Panadis, at Odanak in the 1950 to 1960 period. 1509 As noted already in the Petition, Sophie’s sister, Mary, was another…

Footnote 1506. It should be nosted here that the complete story of these interactions is really just emerging. Day’s 90 names are associated with historic Odanak, a community of variously 300 to 1100 persons. [Day 1981:104-5]. A similar number of names have been found for the Missisquoi community although work on same has barely begun on the scale that Day has accomplished for Odanak. [Moody 1979:82-3; RP: 222-6; Family chart #’s 2-22 in Appendix 11; Name lists in Appendix 7A-D]. Of the Odanak count, Day counts fourteen names (14) which have origins at Missisquoi. An additional eight (8) listed by Day are appearing in new data about Missisquoi and can be added to this number. They are Benedict/Panadis, Cajais/Medor/Kazia, Denis, Lazare, Nicolas, Sabattis/St. John, St. Dennis and Thoms. In addition, thirteen (13) other names listed by Day have been found in the Missisquoi area after 1800 and may in fact have origins there. They are Basil, Brisbois/Wood, Capino/Pinawans/Crappo/Campbell, Congalollett, Hannis, Kanasa, Masta, Ontalawalomet (Ondalamagouin), Otondosone (common origins with Watso), Stanislas, Taksus, Watso/Martin, Wiontimente/Tahamont/Thompson. Ths makes a total of 38 names found at both Odanak and Missisquoi in some form from the earliest times to present day. While that is strong evidence for close interaction, it is clear the stories of the other 60 names from Odanak and an even larger figure from Missisquoi, still remain untold.

Footnote 1507. See Family chart #’s 16& 19 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 1508. See Family chart #’s 11, 12, 13 & 16 in Appendix 11.

Page 341: Continued. …Missisquoi Maurice/ Morits family member who married to an Odanak Obomsawin William Simon O’bomsawin and settled down in Grand Isle where they lived in the late 19th century. 1510 There also was a direct link between the Gardner/Denn/Morin/Morits family and this couple on Grand Isle in this period as well. 1511

One of the clearest measures of how the separation within families and between families affected knowledge of Missisquoi at Odanak comes through this Obomsawin family on Grand Isle. When Gordon Day did his oral histories with the Charolotte, Vermont Abenaki man William Simon Obomsawin, he asked about the Obomsawin’s known to be on Grand Isle in the late 19th century. In about 1960, Simon responded that he had heard of them, they were distant cousins who he had heard of and never met. 1512 Accounts from both Charlotte and Grand Isle on Lake Champlain make it clear that neither of these small Abenaki enclaves were isolated. Rather, this distant memory reflects the later number of families and individuals involved who must be kept track of over the years and generations. It also confirms the growing distance between Odanak and Missisquoi which was the character of the 1900 to 1970 period.
On the Missisquoi side, Murray Cameron has an account of an old Indian basketmaker, who lived with her family in Milton for a while when she was child. 1513 Given the Grand Isle tradition that William Simon Obomsawin left for Milton about 1900 when Mary was a child, it is possible he moved to her parent’s home as they were Murray (Morits) family members.”

Footnote 1509. Day, Field Notes, 1956-1979; Moody, Field Notes, 1977-1984. RP: 81-3; Moody 1979:73 fn 50, 74-5. See also Obomsawin, Morits & Bluto family cards in AA.
Footnote 1510. Moody 1979:63-4 fn 40: RP: 81-3.
Footnote 1511. See Addendum Part B: 293-4 fn’s 1273-4 here.
Footnote 1512. Day, Field Notes, 1956-1979.
Footnote 1513. 2076, 12/3/80:10, 16-7.

Page 343: The most recent, confirmed account of direct Missisquoi/Odanak interaction at Misissquoi comes from a Hance/Hanks/Annance family citation in the 1910 St. Albans census records. There, a Roberts (Robert-Obomsawin) “Indian” family from Canada was lving with an old “Indian” grandfather, Edward Hance, in one of the local neighborhoods. 1516 This Edward was also cited at the death of his daughter in Swanton in 1876. Edward Hanks (Hens/Henry/Hance) raised a large family at Missisquoi in the 19th century, and appears in the Wells and Hoague Central family genealogies. 1517 This family goes by Annance at Odanak, and has been found at Odanak since at least 1760. 1518

Also in 1910, in Highgate, a Bouman (Obomsawin) and Brisbois family appear in the records of Missisquoi. 1519 These two families hail from central Vermont and the Lake George community. Their presence suggests that migration back and forth to that area as well as Odanak was still occurring in 1910. In fact, oral tradition from the Bowman Joseph Bruchac family and the Maurice Denis Adirondack Abenaki family has confirmed the existence of the Vermont Abenaki community in the 20th century. 1520

Footnote 1515. Moody 1979: 63-4; Addendum Part B: 298-300 fn’s 1304-13.
Footnote 1516. See Robert and Hanks family cards in AA; household # 214 in 1910 St. Albans census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart # 15 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 1517. See Family chart #’s 2 & 15 in appendix 11; & Hanks Ancestral family history in Section V.
Footnote 1518. See Hanks family cards in AA. It is important to note that this Edward Hance/Hances was listed as a “Canadian-Indian” in the 1910 census while clearly being a Swanton resident his whole life. Also, it is clear that he was just as much an Abenaki “Indian” in 1876 as he was in 1910 though this is the only time he was listed as an Indian in any of the 20 citations involving him on file in the AA.

Footnote 1519. See Household # 232 in 1910 Highgate, Vermont Census in Appendix 11.
Footnote 1520. 2282, 8/5/83: 2283, 8/5/83: 1-4.

Page 344: In the Bouman Bowman family, present family members recall when their grandfather Jesse E. (Elmer) Bowman would “disappear” for awhile to go visit relatives “in Vermont” in this century.

Also see and read these various books written by Joseph Bruchac:

Bowman’s Store, A Journey to Myself by Joseph Bruchac © 1997. Pages 10 & 11, 153 & 154.

Roots of Survival, Native American Storytelling and the Sacred by Joseph Bruchac © 1996. Pages 179 to194 … Pay close attention to those particular pages.

Page 185 …“Bomazeen: The name comes from Obum-sawin. It means “Keepers of the Ceremonial Fire.” It is a name which has been spelled many ways by Abenaki people, some of whom still carry variations of that name. Joseph Obowmaswine was a veteran of the War of 1812, fighting on the Canadian side. Today, at Odanak (the Abenaki reserve on the St. Francis River in Quebec Province), the Obomsawin family still lives. And the name Cowin, which was that of a family of Indians in Vermont in the late 1880s, probably came from Obomsawin. Names are changed frequently from father to son among the Abenaki. Sometimes …

Page 186: …an Abenaki name has been Gallicized, then re-Abenaki-ized, andthen Anglicized. Sabbatist. Saint Jean-Baptiste. Sabbatist. St. Pierre. Sa Bial. Sabael. Obum-sawin. Bomazeen. Bowman. The name of mother’s father -- Jesse Bowman.”

The Heart of a Chiefby Joseph Bruchac © 1998. Author’s Note (In Part) “I decided, however, not to set this novel on a real reservation. Some of the issues in the book, such as casino gambling, leadership, and alcohol abuse, are too sensitive for me to do that. Instead, I have imagined a reservation where none currently exist, although they should: in New Hampshire. The Penacook are one of the nations of my own Western Abenaki people; but there is, at present,no state or federally recognized Penacook community.”

In a telephone interview with Joseph Bruchac (Abenaki), by Eliza T. Dressang, to accompany the October 6, 1999 discussion of Native American literature for children and teenagers, on CCBC-Net, Mr. Joseph Bruchac (in part) has this to say:”I belong to the Abenaki Nation which is a non-recognized nation in the United States. My great-grandfather [Louis Bowman] came from the little village of Odanak in Canada. I do not have a card from a federally recognized Native American nation.”

Joseph Bruchac’s younger sister, Margaret Bruchac, repeatedly in publications claims to be a Missisqoui Abenaki woman.

The Winter People by Joseph Bruchac © 2002. Pages 160 to 168. Pay close attention to Page 163: “For many years I thought of writing about the events of Roger’s Raid. It was, in part, a personal thing. My own great-grandfather Louis Bowman was born in St. Francis.”

Hidden Roots by Joseph Bruchac © 2004. Pages 130 to 136.Pay close attention to Pages 31 to 44; and 134 of the Author’s Notes. “Sophie” wife to “Uncle Louis” in the book is in reference to Sophie Senecal; and “Uncle Louis” is in reference to Louis Bowman (Sophie nee: Senecal’s son).

March toward the Thunder by Joseph Bruchac © 2008. Pages 291 to 293. Pay close attention to Page 293:My great-grandfather was Canadian, but a Canadian of Native descent whose ancestral roots were in what became the United States. Records list his birth place as St. Francis, the name then used for the Abenaki Indian reserve of Odanak, a mission village made up largely of refugee Indians from New England who fled north to escape the English during the eighteenth century.” … “Like numerous other young Canadian Indian men, my great-grandfather came south to find work because little was available around the reserve. And, 1864, it was in the United States that a recruiter for the Irish Brigade found him.”

From Jesse Bowman Bruchac (son of Joseph Bruchac) Date: Wed, 06 May 2009 01:12:29:

“The suggested Bowman/Obomsawin connection has been made by many, but directly to us by an Odanak elder Maurice Denis who proposed to my aunt and father in the 1970s that it was a name change. Maurice Denis was my father’s mentor at the time and I spent many days as a young child in his kitchen hearing the Abenaki language as he taught my dad the traditional stories of long ago. Maurice Denis lived not far from us and ran an Indian village in Old Forge NY where we spent many summers. Anyway, he believed we were Obomsawin, but this has not and likely cannot be proved. In addition, as suggested in this thread it may not be the case at all. However, even without a name change, Bowman itself is a very old Eastern Algonquin family name. On the record in the 17th century in Massachusetts among the Nantic people. To present it remains a common family name of the Nipmuc, Stockbridge Munsee Mohicans and is also connected with the Wampanoag families, many of whom trace their Native ancestry through Bowman lines.

Page 344: Addendum Continued… “After 1910, there are few specific indications of Odanak/Missisquoi relations before 1974/5. The Petition and the Day (1981) [Identity of the St. Francis Indians Paper No. 71 Published in 1981] St. Francis identity work on Odanak both underscore the disruptive effects of WW 1, the Depression and WW 2 on the family trading and travel networks. 1521 National security combined with economic protectionism to prevent the Odanak Benedict/ Panadis family from returning to work at Highgate Springs from [1906] 1915 to 1930 [ca. 1935].” While virtually every family interviewed in the present Vermont Abenaki community recalls connections to Canadian reservations and families spread throughout the northeast, most of those ties are said to date from the early 20th century. Thus, family ties and community interactions that were weakened by loss of lands and hunting territories in the early 19th century, were effectively cut off by 1920 if the available data is correct.

There are a number of accounts of individual Indians from other areas visiting their kin at Missisquoi that date after World War I. One in the Lampman/Morits family involved an Indian veteran of the war who walked the entire way from the ‘reservation in Canada’ to visit Martha Morits and other relatives at Missisquoi. 1522 Lapan, Martin, St. Francis, Cameron, Maskell and other family members in the current membership recall similar visits since the turn of the 20th century. 1523 Usually, these accounts have surfaced in the context of the Missisquoi Abenaki tradition of ‘taking everyone in’, rather than from a specific origin point for the Indias involved. And finally, some members like the Hammond Small family…

Footnote 1521. RP: 88ff; Day 1981: 61-65.
Footnote 1522. 78 in Moody, Field Notes, 1983.
Footnote 1523. 2074, 12/2/80:1-2; 2102, 6/81:2-3.

Page 345: …with Odanak Robert-Obomsawin ancestry, the Keating Small family which Sadoques ancestry, the Marshalls with Nagajoa and Benedict ancestry, and Mary Murray Lafrance with Littlefield ancestry, all represent ties to Odanak Abenaki families based in the northeastern United States. 1524 After 1974, the public emergence of the Vermont Abenaki community was quickly noted by Odanak families living Vermont. Within two years, a series of meeting had occurred with representatives of the Odanak Abenakis which led to the Vermont community’s first major public acknowledgement in over 200 years. 1525 Shortly after, the Quebec Federation of Indians followed Odanak and Becancour’s lead and accepted their official recognition of the St. Francis/Sokokis Band of the Abenaki Nation in Vermont as well. 1526

Footnote 1524. [Missing from original text of Addendum Document].
Footnote 1525. Haviland Powers 1981:253-5; RP: 107, 155, 213.
Footnote 1526. Indians of Quebec Association General Assembly, August 22-4, 1976: 11-12, 27 & Resolution #12. The resolution is identical to the one passed by the Odanak and Becancour Band Counsels on August 20, 1976. [RP: 213].

Page 353: Of course, numerous oral traditions which link the present community to their 18th and 19th century ancestry have also appeared in the research. The Swasson Morits story is not only a traditional naming tradition, but also a clear sign of linguistic and inter-family continuity at Missisquoi. 1563

Footnote 1563. Addendum Part B: 69-74 fns 291-5.

Douglas Lloyd Buchholz' Research:

There is a Joseph Sanagite or Sanaghiki (Morrisseau) who married to Agnes Portneuf in September 1827 in L'Annonciation de la Bienheureuse Vierge Marie Church, at Oka, Quebec, Canada.

It appears that the man, Joseph Sanagite, was the son of an Algonquin father with the name Guillaume Kajigowich (sp.?) … and an Iroquoian mother named Ann Iawanouwe (sp.?), based on what the marriage record states in September 1827. It would appear that documentarily that this couple Joseph Sanagitte / Morrisseau and Agnes Portneuf were the parents of Sophie Morrisseau (who later married Theophile Panadis on 21 Sep 1846 at Odanak, Qc, Canada). Clearly her mother Agnes Portneuf was identified as Abenaki, per Agnes' marriage record).

Sophie's sister, Marie Anne Sanagite / Morrisseau married 1st to Michel Tahamont on Jan 19, 1848 at Odanak, Qc, Canada. He was the son of Laurent Tahamont and Marie Agathe Sanagite Saziboite. (Not sure why they put "Sanagite" in the entry for Marie Saziboite, but I will leave it there until indicated to remove it; interesting, that it is there though)

Michel Tahamont had a brother, Swanssin Joachim Tahamont born on 17 Oct 1817 at Odanak, Quebec, Canada.

Marie Anne Sanagite ? /Morrisseau remarried a second time, to Guillaume O'Bomsawin on 17 Nov 1856 … at Odanak as well. He was the son of Simon O'Bomsawin and Monique Wawanolett, having been born on 31 Mar 1833 at Odanak, Quebec, Canada.
Marriage Record for Theophile Panadis and Sophie Morrisseau
September 21, 1846 
Saint Francois du Lac, Yamaska County, Quebec, Canada
Sophie (nee: Morrisseau) Panadis' Death Record
November 29, 1910
Odanak Abenaki Community, Yamaska County, Quebec, Canada

Correspondence of John S. Moody and Dr. Gordon M. Day:

April 24, 1976: Letter from John Scott Moody to Gordon Day. “There are presently some people working on reconstituting Abenaki identity in Northern Vermont who are interested in my work.”

Dr. Day apparently sent John Moody some materials on May 14th, 1976 following this letter received by Day from John Moody the month before.

Decemeber 13, 1976: Rutland Herald Newspaper. The ‘Baker Report’ came under sharp attack by the Sportman’s Federation here Sunday, with several delegates referring to it as ‘slipshod’ and ‘highly subjective.’ …. “John Randolph, who has been asked to serve on the newly created Commission on Indian Affairs (see story), is perhaps the leading spokesman for the anti-recognition camp. As editor of the Vermont Sportsman magazine, Randolph wrote a scathing editorial in the December issue criticizing the Baker Report and Gov. Thomas Salmon’s decision. Randolph was at the meeting Sunday, and spoke at length on his views concerning the Indians and on his contact with Dr. Gordon M. Day, an anthropologist who works for the National Institute of Man in Ottawa, Canada.

“Dr. Day told me that he was surprised that the state has not asked for any verification of the descent of these people,” Randolph said.

He termed the Baker Report, “insufficient”, very subjectively done and sketchily written.” He said that the state acted on “insufficient background information” when the executive order was signed.

“I can’t speak for Gordon M. Day, but I know that he would hotly contest the claims of genealogical studies in the Baker Report,” Randolph said.

August 02, 1977: Letter to John Moody from Gordon M. Day. “As I remember it, one of the families who came to Highgate Springs each year until the 1920’s was the Panadis family. I have more names in my notes, but they are not indexed. If I run across them I’ll let you know. St. Laurent and Coolomb are French names, and I have never found them as the names of Abenakis. For Abenakis around Waterloo, Quebec, the area around Brome was the hunting territory of the Portneuf family in the early 1800’s, but as far as I know they were all found at Odanak later on. I think perhaps we covered your other questions in your telephone call.

April 27, 1979: Letter to John Moody from Gordon M. Day. “Dear John, One of the few things I accomplished during my lay-a-bed five weeks was reading your article. I read it completely and with interest. I even reread some of it. You surely deserve commendation for your industry and for the way you integrated that volume of scattered, and as yet incomplete data, into a new hypothesis. I know from my own experience that census and church register data is very intractable [meaning: difficult to manipulate] stuff, especially when it includes the vagaries of Indian nomenclature.
I have made only a few comments on the manuscript, which is being returned with, or at least in the same mail, as this letter. And these are not uniform in any way, because there is so much to say about several of the points you make. Perhaps I can make up for some this deficiency here. Both your new data and your hypothesis are very pertinent to the paper I am writing on the identity of the St. Francis band. I had to lay this down last November 1, but I plan to get back to it in a week and finish it by September. My concern is to identify, as far as possible, the linguistic and ethnographic information I obtained between 1956 and 1978 (although there will be a dribble for a few years yet). At present I don’t think I need to carry the historical processes much beyond 1800, since the village was practically complete by this time, and further finer-graded identification will probably have to be pursued through oral tradition and the clustering of linguistic traits.
In any event, there is much to do on both our fronts. Let me mention what strikes me as our main problems with our data as I see them, although I suspect you are well aware of them.
Church registry data often leaves us uncertain whether the people mentioned were residents in the vicinity or transients.
Unless our combined data is complete with the degree of “indianness” of persons with French or English family names, that is, is a given name a French name applied in baptism to a real Indian or does it represent the marriage of a French or English person with an Indian woman and with what subsequent results with respect to Indian or European marriages and offspring:
We are often left with the problem of interpreting family names as disfigured Indian names and without a trustworthy Indian tradition we must bring a high degree of subjectivity to the job; for example, we agree on the notion that “Compient” was a bad transcription of Capino, but I would not know how to prove it with the data I have seen so far.
You ask how I feel about your theme of a verifiable Abenaki community in Vermont. I have no feelings about this, since I try never to fight against the facts. Your new information is very welcome indeed. The increased number of Abenakis remaining in one guise or another, in the Missisquoi region helps enormously in clarifying the old problem of just what happened to the tribe after circa 1775. I have always, I think, left this open-ended in my writings. It is clear that a sizeable portion of the tribe did move to Odanak, otherwise how can we account for the large number of descendants there, even the 1820’s? You have shown that an unexpectedly large portion remained, or returned and settled, in the Missisquoi region. Isn’t this about as far as our facts go at present?
You remember that I never said there were not Abenaki descendants on Lake Champlain. I said there were. I didn’t realize how many. From the time of the first propaganda by Ronnie Cannes and company my position about the Abenaki “Nation” at Swanton was: examine their genealogies and see instead of taking anti-polar positions and arguing.
If you and I have any differences in our conclusions – and we both must be tentative – I think they are no more than differences of interpretation, particularly as to what your new information will mean to the Swanton “community.” And after we have assembled the data and given them our interpretations, the political decisions will be in someone else’s hands anyway.
Many details occurred to me as I read your article, too many to discuss here. Most of them have no great import unless you are planning to publish the article. They are, for example, cases of two spellings of the same Indian name being taken for different names. If I ever make my return trip to speak to the VAS, perhaps we can have fun going into the details.
Best regards, Sincerely,
Gordon M. Day
Eastern Canadian Ethnologist
Canadian Ethnology Service.

The Identity of the Saint Francis Indians” by Gordon M. Day National Museums of Canada, Ottawa, 1981:

PREFACE: “I have incurred a more recent debt to John Moody of Sharon, Vermont, for sharing with me new information on the background of the Missisquoi Band. I hope his work, which I have had to cite here in manuscript, will soon appear in print.”

Page 48: Frisch stated that Abenaki names were distinguished in the Saint Regis Register until the 1820’s, and John Moody found a certain Medard Cahia who was apparently bon there St. Regis in 1834 and raised at Missisquoi (Frisch 1971: 28; Moody 1979: 60). It is probable that some did return, and Moody’s perspective analysis of the church registers has detected a three way movement in the 19th century between Odanak, Missisquoi and Saint Regis (Moody 1979: 70-75).

Page 57: “As Moody pointed out, they could not be expelled unless they were there.” (Moody 1979: 26)

Moody pointed to Masta’s tradition of 50 wigwams in Swanton in 1790, but I doubt that we can rely on this today.”

Page 58: Moody, however, has accumulated considerable evidence that, rather than emigrating, some of the Indians deprived of their corn lands, withdrew to more marginal parts of the area and persisted, with some white intermarriage, as family groups known to each other as Indians.”

Moody has also accumulated considerable evidence pointing to persisting Indian communities at Milton, Vermont, and on Burton’s Island near Saint Albans. (Moody 1979: 61 fn 39; 73 fn 51 et al).

Page 78: Cajiais. “Moody has traced a Medard Cajiais who was born at St. Regis of Abenaki parents in 1834 and was raised at Missisquoi (Moody 1979: 60-61). The case of Louis Cayia, for example, is a particular problem. He was listed among the whites who had occupied land on the Saint Francis Reserve (Thomas M. Charland 1964: 244 fn 240).

Page 85: Mitchell. In 1765 Joseph Michel is names in the Robertson lease of Missisquoi lands, which inclines me towards the view that Michel was Missisquoi family. The presence of an Abenaki Mitchell family among the Iroquois at Saint Regis and the apparent connection between Saint Regis and Missisquoi strengthens this view somewhat (Frish 1970:69). There were Mitchells at both Saint Francis and Missisquoi in the 19th century (Censuses of 1873 and 1875; Register of the Mission of Saint-Francois de Sales; Moody 1979:53, 57-59).

Page 86. Morice. Alexis Morice appears in the 1829 census. After his name in the 1830 census was written “venu iroqois”. I take this to mean that he moved to some Iroquois village. If so, his stay was brief because he was back in the 1932 census listed without children. The last person of that name to appear in the Saint Francis censuses was Sophi Morisseau (Sophi Môlis), widow of Theophile Panadis, in the censuses of 1873 and 1875. She was remembered by her grandson, Theophile Panadis, as having come from Misssisquoi. Moody (1979: 43, fn 22) found what he believed to be seven variations of this name --- Maurice, Morins, Molisse, Morisseau, Morrisey, Moricette and Morits, and he found several appearances of the family name in records of parishes in the lower Lake Champlain and upper Richelieu River region. Some members of the family are remembered as living in the Thousand Islands around the turn of the century. In Abenaki the name is Môlis, plural Môliszak.

Page 94: Sanagite. Marianne Sanagite, daughter of Joseph Sanagite and Agnes Portneuf, was married to Michel Winitahamant in 1848 (Register of the Mission of Saint-Francois-de-Sales).

Page 119: NOTES # 14. “I am indebted to John Moody for this crucial reference.”

Page 132: REFERENCES CITED. John Moody 1979 Missisquoi: Abenaki Survival in Their Ancient Homeland. Manuscript in the possession of the author, Sharon, Vermont. 91 pp.

Sunday, November 27, 2011

Are the Barratt’s and or Lampman's "St. Francis/ Sokoki/Missisquoi” Members; or are they not? Part 7:

Addendum to the Petition for Federal Recognition
Dated January 10, 1986
In Repsonse to the "Letter of Obvious Deficiencies and Significant Omissions"
Dated (6/14/1983).
Part B

Page 200: In all the census records until 1840, the Morits family retains that well documented central role in the early 19th century Abenaki community. After that time, they recede from the records and are replaced by other families like the Barrett's, Salts, Greenias and Martins in Highgate, the Francis (St. Francis), Medor, Freemore, Brow and Vanselette families in Swanton and the Richards, Bluto, Guyette and Wells families from St. Albans Bay. They were one of the central families of the 19th century, and are today remembered as an important Small and Ancestral Abenaki family in the Barratt, Lampman and Martin Central families among others. 821 Their 18th and early 19th century role has always been carried on in the Vermont Abenaki community down to present day. And their well documented continuity in both community leadership and documented interactions with the rest of the Abenaki during this period is the best evidence found so far of a direct connection between the old Missisquoi 19th century Abenaki community that ‘disappeared’by 1800 and the familiar Highgate/Franklin, Swnaton and St. Albans bay Abenaki community documented by the Petition from 1820 to 1970.

Footnote 821. RP: 225; Barrat, Martin & Lampman Central family genealogies in RP; & Family chart #’s 5-6, 14 & 18 in Appendix 11. See also Barrat, Lampman & Martin Central family histories in Section V here.

Page 201: “From Highgate Springs all the way past Franklin Pond to East Franklin there were a series of family groups amounting to a large population who tie directly into the present community. The Greenia and Barratt Central families stand out in the records from 1850 to 1910, much as the Morits did from 1800 to 1840.
The Barratt family appears in Swanton, St. Albans and Highgate beginning about 1820. The recorded Barratt story begins in 1800 near Lake Memphremagog where Benjamin Barret (Benjamin Barnes/Barret Benjamin) lived with a large family from 1800 to 1820. 824 The name changes and location of the family, and much earlier data associated with Odanak, strongly suggest that this was an Abenaki family. 825 The Derby citation is ealy confirmation for a connection of the Gardner, Demar, Phillips and other wandering families to an “Indian reservation” in the Lake Memphremagog area of Vermont and Quebec at the headwaters of the Missisquoi River. 826 About 1820, Benjamin Barret moved to the Swanton area where he appeared in the remote Fairfield Pond neighborhood in 1824 and 1827 as Barret Bears (Berrys). 827 This…

Footnote 822. See 1850 Highgate & Franklin/Sheldon Summaries in Appendix 1A.
Footnote 823. Ibid: 1860.
Footnote 824. Benja Barret was listed in 1800 Derby census with a family of 5. [2097, 1800: 646]. He was listed in 1810 as Barret Benjamin. [2097, 1810:191]. And in 1820 as Benjamin Barnes. [ 2097, 1820:357].
Footnote 825. At Odanak, a “Baquabarrat, also known as Nathaniel”, was one of the early 18th century Western Abenaki leaders. [Day 1981:77]. A “Nathaniel” appears once with a large family in the 1820 Swanton census who may have been a direct descendant of that branch of this large Missisquoi and Odanak family. [See 1820 Swanton census in Appendix 1B].

Footnote 826. Moody, Field Notes, 1977-84 & 1981: 41-71; Day 1981: 58-9; RP: 55, 157.
Footnote 827. See 1824 & 1827 Swanton Scholar’s lists in Appendix 3. He is listed as Barret Bears & Barret Berrys in these records. It is most likely the same person as the dates, ages of the children and name changes correspond.

Page 202: …family also has a typically Abenaki common origin with the Beyor (Beyor/Bior/Berard/Bear/
Little Bear/Barnes/Bero/Berard/Bearer) Other family which figures prominently in the Lafrance Central family genealogy and the Highgate Abenaki community in the 19th century. 828 Benjamin Barnes (Barret) moved to Highgate by 1830 where he lived until his death in 1858. 829 He is the direct ancestor of the Derosier Small family who recall that this was an Indian family line. 830
Andrew Barratt moved between the Middle Road/Lake Road, Swanton Junction and Fairfield Pond neighborhoods in Swanton and the Highgate woods from 1820 to 1833 in a pattern which intersects Benjamin Barratt’s (Barnes) movements in the Highgate woods and remote Swanton Fairfield Pond neighborhoods. 831
Andrew Barratt and Benjamin Barret/Barnes disappear from the records after 1833, although it is certain that Benjamin was living in Highgate until 1858. 832 Michael Barnes, the son of Benjamin, was living in one large, ten family groups of Abenaki families in the 1840 Highgate woods. 833 In Swanton, a large Beyor (Bear) branch of this family remained in Back Bay from the 1820’s to the 1860’s. 834

Footnote 828. See Beyor Other family and Lafrance Central family genealogies in RP. See May Beyor card in Beyor family cards in AA; & Family chart #’s 10 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 829. HLR, Bk 17:535-7. See Benjamin Barret card in AA. See 1830 Highgate census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart # 8 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 830. See Marion Desrosier Small family genealogy in RP.
Footnote 831. See 1820 Swanton census & 1830 Highgate census in Appendix 1B; 1822, 1824, 1827 & 1833 Swanton scholar’s lists in Appendix 3. Andrew was living in Swanton in 1820, Middle Road/Lake Road in 1822, Swanton Jct in 1824 & 1827, Highgate in 1830 & Fairfield Pond in 1833.
Footnote 832. See 1822 Middle Road/Lake Road, 1824 and 1827 Swanton Jct & 1833 Fairfield Pond in Swanton School records in Appendix 3 & 1830 & 1840 Highgate census in Appendix 1B.
Footnote 833. See 1840 Highgate census in Appendix 1B.
Footnote 834. See 1840 Swanton census; household #’s 11, 16 & 343 in 1850 Swanton census; & houshould #’s 487 in 1860 Swanton census in Appendix 1B; & 1827, 1831, 1832, 1841, 1842, 1849, 1850, 1851, 1857 Swanton Scholars’ lists in Appendix 3.

Page 203:Samual Barratt, progentier of the large Barratt Central family, appeared in Highgate about 1820, married one of the Morits family women and settled down in Franklin up on the Rock River near the Highgate line. 838 His family became the focal point of a small group of Indian families by 1860 and remained there until the late 1800’s. In 1860, a Lawyer Small family, Atwood ancestral family and Hoag Central family were all listed with Samuel. 839
Further east in Franklin, another Barrett family was living next door to Demarrar (Demar/Morits) and Wood (Brisbois) families in another section of the Highgate/Franklin woods. 840 Samuel’s son Samuel Barratt and family were living near the Platt farm on the ‘Indian reservation’ by 1900 with thirty two other families including his brother Henry Barrett and Lafrance, Hakey, Shampang, St. Lawrence, …

Footnote 835. See Mary Beyor card in Beyor cards in AA; & Family chart #’s 5-6, 10 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 836. See 1831 O’Callaghan’s register in Appendix 5A & 1855 St. Marie’s register in Appendix 5B; & Family chart 3 4 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 837. See 1840 Highgate census in Appendix 1B; & Marguerite Francis card in Francis cards in AA.
Footnote 838. See William Barratt card in AA. See 1840 Franklin census & household # 44 in 1860 Franklin census in Appendix 1B.
Footnote 839. See household #’s 39-41 & 98 in 1860 Highgate census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #’s 2, 3, 5-6, 11, 18, 20 & 22 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 840. See household #’s 362-4 I n1860 Franklin census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #’s 11 & 18 in Appendix 11.

Page 204: Gonyea (Gonyo), Patnode, Champang and White (Glode) families. 841 Henry and Samuel Barrett and the two Atwood sisters they married were the sources for the two main Barratt family lines in the Abenaki community today. 842 Henry remained with other Barrett's in the Highgate woods around Highgate Springs and formed the beginning of the lime kiln/Frontage Road/Fortrin Road neighborhood. He is listed there in 1910 with a large neighborhood of Friot, Partlow, Morits, Greenyea (Greenia), Bush (Bushey), Lafrance, Currier (Medor), Guyette, Ouimette, Jerome (Jeremy), Terrien, Champang and Beor (Beyor) families. 843 By 1810, Samuel Barret and Bertha Atwood had moved their family to Goose Island in the Lake Road neighborhood of Swanton. 844 Merry J(ane Martin Morits) Barratt, Martha Morits’s mother, was already living at Bushey Street where she had moved after her second husband, William Barrat, had died in 1898. 845 The Barratt family soon followed her into Swanton’s bushey Street neighborhood where they are largely focused today. 846 The family had come full circle through the Highgate/Franklin woods over most of the 19th century back to Swanton’s Lake Road and Bushey Street neighborhoods in yet another permutation of Abenaki movement throughout the area.
The Barratt/Beyor family migrations between St. Albans, Swanton, Franklin and Highgate exemplify the interwoven nature of the Abenaki community since 1800.

Footnote 841. See household #’s 144-245 in 1900 Highgate census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #’s 2, 3, 4, 5-6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 & 22 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 842. See Barratt Central family genealogy in RP.
Footnote 843. See household #’s 257, 259, 263, 266 & 378 in the 1910 Highgate census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #’s 3, 4, 5-6, 8, 9, 14, 15, 16, 17 & 20 in Appendix 11.
Foontote 844. See household # 189 in 1910 Swanton census in Appendix 1B.
Footnote 845. See household #100 in Swanton census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #’s 5-6 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 846. See Barratt Central family history in Section V here.

Page 205: “The Morits and one branch of the Martin family ancestry links the Greenias to the Swanton and Highgate Morits and Martin Central families. William and Mary Jane Martin Morits were Pat Greenia’s great, great grandparents. As noted earlier, Mary Jane Martin remarried to William Barratt after Will Morits died. She was also Martha Morits Lampman’s mother. 851 The…
Footnote 851. See Pat Greenia and Lampman Central family genealogies in RP; Mary Jane Mratin Morits Barratt card in Martin family cards in AA; & Mary J(ane Martin Morits) Barratt in household # 100 in 1910 Swanton census in Appendix 1B here; & Family chart #’s 5-6, 9 & 18 in Appendix 11.

Page 206:Morits line in both these families goes back to the series of John Morits family leaders who lived in the Highgate woods from 1800 to 1840.
There are two linked Martin lines involved, both with early 19th century Highgate roots. Mary Jane Martin’s branch had moved to the outlying neighborhoods of Swanton with the Morits families by the second half of the 19th century. 852 Another branch, more closely linking to the Greenias, remained in Highgate. Charles Martin was listed as living in the same Highgate Center neighborhood with Peter Greenia and other Indian families in the 1850 Highgate census. 853 By 1860, Charles Martin, Peter Greenia and their families had moved to the Platt farm area of Highgate Springs where they were living near the John Morris (Morits) and Porter Olds families among others. 854 Porter Olds is a direct ancestor of the contemporary Olds Central family from Highgate and Franklin. 855 One of his relatives also married into this same Greenia family through a Minkler Small family marriage. 856 Charles Martin remained in the Highgate woods neighborhood until his death in 1893 at the age of 99. 857 His mother was Kius (Koas/Lapan) from the 18th century Missisquoi community. 858 Until 1850, this family was living completely outside the records…

Footnote 852. Daniel Martin, Mary Jane Martin Morits Barratt’s father, died in District # 8, the John’s Bridge neighborhood, in 1891. See Daniel Martin card in Martin cards in AA & Martin Central family history in Section V here; & Family chart #’s 5-6, 14 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 853. See household # 21 in 1850 Highgate census in Appendix 1B.
Footnote 854. See household #’s 27, 32, 87, 116 & 124 in 1860 Highgate census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #’s 5-6, 14, 17 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 855. See Olds Central family genealogy in RP & family history in Section V here.
Footnote 856. See Pat Greenia Central family genealogy in RP; & Family chart # 9 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 857. See Charles Martin card in Martin cards in AA.

Page 207: …consulted so far. The only clear indication of a location for the Martin (Montagne/Watso) families back to 1800 is one reference to Salisbury on the Otter Creek in the lower Champlain Valley. 859 This fits with the close Salesbury family connection to the Morits family and marks the possible range of the large Martin (Montagne/Watso) family along the eastern shore of Lake Champlain in the first half of the 19th century. 860 This is compatible with accounts of the Odanak branch of the family. John Watso (Montagne) from Odanak had a particular attachment to the Otter Creek area from Rutland and Salisbury up to Ferrisburg. 861 Charles Martin and his family were the leading edge in Highgate of this large family’s appearance in Abenaki neighborhoods throughout the northwestern Vermont area after 1840.”

Footnote 859. See Charles Martin card in Martin cards in AA.
Footnote 859. See James Martin card in Martin family cards in AA. He was born in 1793 in Salisbury and died in 1861 in St. Albans.
Footnote 860. Bessy Salesbury was John Morits’ wife and appears in the Greenia and Lampman Central family genealogies in the RP. William Salisbury, probably Bessy’s father, appears with a growing family in the 1830 and 1840 Highgate census. [See 1830 & 1840 Highgate census in Appendix 1B]. In the 1840 census, he is living right next door to the Henry Morits family on the Rock River in the Highgate woods. He and his family disappear by 1850, but two families of that name reappear in the 1860 Highgate woods Abenaki neighborhood according to the census. [See household #’s 187 & 215 in 1860 Highgate census in Appendix 1B]. The name has disappeared or changed to another, unrecognizable form by 1900. This kind of naming is also the most likely source for the Champang (Champlain) and possibly the Lapan (Koas) family as well. [RP: 207, 209].
Footnote 861. Robinson 1868: 32; 1892: 6; Day 1961: 84; 1971: 10; 1981: 99. They also, like the Barratt family, had an early 19th century link to the Lake Memphremagog area as well. [See Jacques Watso card in Watso family cards in AA].

Page 208: By 1860, Edward Salt [DeCel/DeSalle] and his large family reappear in the growing Highgate Falls neighborhood with Morets (Morits), Martin, Cota, Olds, Sears and Flinton families. 864 The family name derives from the ancestral Abenaki Desalle family which appears by 1791 at Missisquoi. 865

Footnote 864. See household #’s 302-50 in 1860 HIghgate census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #’s 2, 4, 5-6, 14, 17 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 865. Francois Sile “de St. Francois” was buried at Chambly in 1791. [St. Joseph of Chambly registers, 1791: 4]. Another Francois DeSale, with father of the same name was buried at Stanbridge, just across the Canadian border from Franklin, in 1831. [See Francois DeSale card in DeSale family cards in AA]. At Odanak in the same period, it was fairly common to name men Francois de Sale. A Francois de Sale Obomsawin and Francois deSale Capineau (Crapo) were both prominent in the records there in the early 19th century. [131:1-2]. In one 1819 Odanak document, one of the “principal men” who signed, was listed just as “Francois de Salles”. [Day 1981:71]. Since both the Obomsawin and Capino (Crapo) families had relatives at Missisquoi, it is likely that the Highgate Salt family derives from one of these two Abenaki families.

Page 210: “By 1900 and 1910, there were Martin, Greenia, Olds, Lafrance and other family members living in both the Highgate Springs ends of the extended Highgate woods neighborhood. 873 In addition, there was a large number of Greenia and Greeno family members living on the County Road, Back Bay and the bow of the river in Swanton from 1850 to 1910. 874 As in Highgate, the Swanton Martin family was often listed in close proximity to the Greenia’s. Edward Martin, family and community leader from one large Swanton line of the family, was living with several Greenia and Hance (Anus) families on the County Road south of the Lake Road neighborhood in 1910. 875 From 1850 to 1910, the Greenias, Martins and Barratts largely replaced the Morits families in the forefront of the Highgate woods neighborhood.”

Footnote 873. See household #’s 15, 96, 110, 114, 116, 117, 118, 125, 126, 129, 132, 158, 201 & 204 in 1900 Highgate census& household #’s 29, 41, 100, 112, 114, 174, 188, 202, 206, 290, 336 & 352 in 1910 Highgate census; & Family chart #’s 3, 4, 5-6, 9, 10, 14, 17 &18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 874. See household #’s 10, 12, 304, 402, in Swanton 1850 census; household #’s 483 in 1860 Swanton census; household # 301 in 1900 Swanton census; & household #’s 51, 53, 63, 114, 115, 116, 275, 436, 440 & 443 in the 1910 Swanton census in Appendix 1B. 78, 4/2/85:
Footnote 875. See household #’s 436-51 in Swanton 1910 census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #’s 2, 5-6, 9, 14, 15 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 876. See 1790-1984 Census Total in Appendix 1A.

Page 212: “The Barrett's and Morits’ also continued to have families in Highgate after their 19th century return to Swanton.”

Page 214: “By 1910, the Lafrance family was at the leading edge of the movement onto the Frontage Road (called the Swanton Road in the 1910 census) and Fortrin Road (called the Phillipsburg Road in the 1910 census). 894 George and Joseph Lafrance, along with Frank Partlow and Paul Champang, were working at the actve lime kiln and nearby quarry. 895 They were each supporting large families, and George is…

Footnote 894. See household #’s 335-381 in 1910 Highgate census in Appendix 1B.
Footnote 895. See household #’s 336, 352, 364 & 364 in Highgate census in Appendix 1B; Family chart #’s 5-6 & 10 in Appendix 11. In the 1910 census, each was listed with a job in either the lime kiln or the quarry next door.

Page 215: …remembered as the head of the extended Lafrance family and a community leader in this period as well. 896 Addie Rollo, his third wife, was a prominent midwife for the Highgate woods Abenaki neighborhood during this time. 897 Henry Barret and Alfred Flinton were also supporting their families by working at the lime quarry. 898 Henry Barret and his wife Mary Atwood were the family leaders of the Highgate Barrets in this period. 899 Other local Abenaki families including the Friots, Morits, Greenias, Partlows, Guyettes and Beors were also living close by and working as small farmers, truckers and laborers. 900 George Partlow and Zora Bitters, the progenitors of the contemporary Partlow Central family, were leaders of that family after 1920 and were listed as farming in that neighborhood in 1910. ... 
  George’s brother Cassius (Cash) Partlow and his family were also cited living fairly close by in 1910. He also was a family and community leader in Highgate who worked as a teamster and general provider like his counterpart in Swanton Nazaire St. Francis. 902 Next door to Cassius his parents, ...  901

[Charles Henry Partlow & Sophia Blain/Blair>their son: George Partlow & Zoa/Zora Bitters>their daughter: Cora L. Partlow & Arthur Elmer Rollo>their son: Foster Hubert Rollo & Faustine Ramona Raymond/Raymo>their daughter: Linda Mae Rollo & Christopher J. Reader>their son: Brent McEwen Reader]

Footnote 896. 2110, 6/30/81:1 & household # 352 in 1910 Highgate census in Appendix 1B. he was listed as the fireman for the boiler in the lime kiln and the head of a large family of eleven in the 1910 census. He was married three times and had 27 children over the course of his life. His father, Charles Lafrance, was also a major family and community leader in 19th century Highgate, despite his not being listed in any but the town vital record for much of this period. [Lafrance Central family history in Section V].
Footnote 897. 2110, 6/30/81:8. Rollo is probably a direct English spelling for the Abenaki name “Lolo’ or Laurent/Lawrence/St. Lawrence.
Footnote 898. See household #’s 257 & 259 in 1910 Highgate census in Appendix 1B.
Footnote 899. See Charles Tuttle genealogy in Barratt Central family genealogy in RP.
Footnote 900. See household #’s 263, 265, 266, 280, 290, 291, 292, 332, 333, 335, 339, 362, 378 & 381 in 1910 Highgate census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #’s 4, 5-6, 8, 9, 10, 14, 16 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 901. See household # 332 in 1910 Highgate census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #’s 4 & 10 in Appedix 11.
Footnote 902. 211, 3/2/1984:9; 224, 12/ 19/78:1; 2506, 1/27/82:2-3,31-2. See household #’s 292 & 292 in 1910 Highgate census in Appendix 1B.

Page 216: ….Charles and Sophie Blair Partlow, were living as well. Sophie was a member of the large Balir (Belor/Willsomquax) Ancestral family which had old links to Missisquoi and the Lafrance’s and other Highgate and Swanton families. 903 Sophie was a midwife and community leader in the 1870 to 1910 period. 904 her granddaughter, the 20th century Highgate woods midwife and community leader Angie Partlow Maskell, was said to have followed in her grandmother Sophie’s footsteps.
Up to 1920, the Highgate woods area had a dispersed character dating back to the early 1800’s if not earlier. The four Partlow, four Barret and four Greenia families shown in the 1910 Highgate census were separated geographically by considerable distances just as the Henry and John Morits families were from 1800 to 1840 in the same area. 905 However, no families lived in total isolation and extensive networking, mutual assistance and intermarriage between these families and others in the area have been documented. 906 Subsistence and peddling territories were arranged so that maximum use of the land and local non-Indian community would be possible without competition. 907

Footnote 903. See Sophie Blair Partlow card in Belair (Blair) cards in AA; Belair (Blair) Ancestral family history in Section V. here; & Family chart #’s 4 & 10 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 904. 211, 7/13/78:2 & 3/2/1984:2.
Footnote 905. See household #’s 29, 41, 114, 174, 188, 202, 206, 257, 259, 263, 266, 290, 291, 292, 332, 333, 334, 364 & 378 in 1910 Highgate census in Appendix 1B.
Footnote 906. 2110, 6/30/81:4; 2506, 1/27/82:31.
Footnote 907. See Section I, Linked Families from 1920-1970 [pp 99-104] here. Each family in the area has its own preferred foods it exploited in the rivers, ponds, Lake, marshes and woods of the area. These territories are still largely intact today, though in many cases, severly curtailed by regulation and non-Indian encroachment.

Page 217: “In the Lafrace and Beyor families in particular, it is recalled that they derived from the old “Indian reservation” and “Indian village up on the hill [and] and in the woods” in Highgate and nearby Phillipsburg, Quebec on Missisquoi Bay. 911

Footnote 911. 2110, 6/30/81: 1, 3, and 4. Like the Swatson oral history and other typical family traditions in the Abenaki community, this account is said to have occurred in the time of the ‘grandparents’. In fact, the clear association of this oral history with the time of Highgate’s ‘first settlement’ places it at least back in the late 18th century if not earlier.

Page 219: It has been confirmed in the Indian community that this group was led by “Old John Lapan” and his family. 913 This account was a latter witnessing of the same group of families named in the Morits/Lampman family tradition discussed in Section 1 here. 914 That account was specifically focused at the Monument farm area and describes the first Abenaki resettlement there in the late 1800’s. Members of several of the ‘traveling’ and ‘subsistence’ families cited in the Petition were included in their numbers. 915

Footnote  912. Moody 1979: 64, 76; RP: 97. Note that the Petition cited 20 to 30 individuals in its rendition of the account, but the original oral history referred to “20 huts”. Another version from the same source cites 20 to 30 families. [7, 6/82:3].
Footnote  913. 213, 9/3/81: 2074, 12/2/80 3: 2245, 3/18/82: 7: 2288, 3/18/81: 4 & 11/13/83:3; RP 97. See also footnote 681, page 164 here; RP 226; & Family chart # 7 in Appendix 11.
Footnote  914. See footnote 295, page 70 here.
Footnote  915. The Lapan, Morits, St. Francis, Phillips, Gardner and Winters families were explicitly included in the Swatson account. [2262, 10/6/83:3-5, 12]. See also Family chart’s #2, 3, 4, 5-6, 7, 8, 9,11,12,14, 16, 17, 18, 21 & 22 in Appendix 11.
Footnote  916. RP: 95: 213, 5/24/78: 1.

Page 220: “Some of the Indians living at the Monument like the Phillip’s, do not appear in any local town, school or church records until the early-to-mid-20th century. Others like John and Martha Morits Lampman, George and Emma Como Demar and John and Minnie Lavigne Lapan were the leading edge of the slow settling out which characterizes the more friendly 1900 to 1910 period in the greater Swanton area.” 927

Footnote 927. See Family chart #’s 506, 7 & 12 in Appendix 11; & Family History and Leadership chart in Appendix 2.

Page 221: “The Morits and Lampman families on Lake Road maintained close relations with the Lapans throughout this period. As noted earlier, the Lapans got most of their ash splints from the land in back of Martha Morits’s home off lake Road, and John Lapan would always bring a new basket by for the Lampman’s, to acknowledge the use of the land.” 933

Footnote 933. 78, 9/16/83:9-10, 29.

Page 223: “Given the strong traditions of Abenaki live focused around the Monument farm, and the Missisquoi Indian village, it is a safe assumption that the area was just as extensively used for a campground throughout the 19th century. 941 In fact, John Hilliker, Henry Lampman, the Teachouts and other close allies of the Abenakis during the land struggles with the Allens before 1790, moved to the Monument side of the Missisquoi River by 1800. 942 In John Hilliker’s case, the Indians continued to interact with his family where they settled half way to Hog Island on the north side of the River by ‘Hilliker’s landing’. 943 One small branch of the family intermarried with the Abenakis and are members today.” 944
Henry Lampman and the Lampman/Morits families are also well documented on both sides of the Missisquoi River in the years following 1800. The Lampman’s had become Abenaki in all aspects by the generation of Henry Lampman and Julia Morits from (continued onto page 224) …the 1820’s to the 1880’s. Detailed study of the entire period focused on the Monument farm has not yet been undertaken.”
Footnote 941. Skeels 1871: 225; RP:1-3.
Footnote 942. 78, 9/16/83:11. See 1800-1830 Swanton & Highgate censuses in Appendix 1B & 1803 Highgate land records list in Appendix 4B.
Footnote 943. See 1811 Swanton land records list in Appendix 4A.
Footnote  944. “Muskrat Hilliker” was cited by one Indian source as a member of the ‘marsh people’ group in the early 1900’s.

Page 225: “The Morits family transistion from community leaders at the forefront of the effort to retain tribal lands on the Rock Rock to one of the underground subsistence families which remained in the area lends convincing evidence to the argument for continuity from the 1790’s to present.
And it is clear from the Morits, Barratt, Martin, Greenia, Olds, Lafrance, Lapan and other families’ movements between Highgate and other towns in the immediate area that the Abenaki community was just as widely integrated from 1800 to 1920 as the Petition has documented it being from 1920 to present.

Page 225-226: “Highgate has been a consistent location of numerous Indian families in an extended neighborhood which stretched from Highgate Springs all the way to Highgate Center and East Highgate into Franklin. Land ownership and settlement on the order of Back Bay did not occur on a large scale there until the 20th century when the Frontage Road/ Fortin Road, Highgate Springs and Highgate Center neighborhoods became more concentrated. Like the Lake Road area of Swanton, the Highgate woods from the Monument farm through to Franklin held a large, flexible, often undetected population which came in and out of land ownership, but endured none-the-less. Despite the records, familial roots back to old Missisquoi and forward to the present community are extensively documented now. The Morits family transition from community leaders at the forefront of the effort to retain tribal lands on the Rock River to one of the underground subsistence families remained in the area lends convincing evidence to the argument for community continuity from the 1790’s to present. And it is clear that he Abenaki community was just as widely integrated from 1800 to 1920 as the Petition has documented it being from 1920 to present.”

“Chart 5-6, ‘Swanton-Highgate’ detail the 180 year cycle of the Morits, Greenia and Martin families in both Highgate and Swanton as well as showing the St. Albans Bay Morits and Lampman branches of those families. 950 And the ‘Travelers’ chart shows John and Minnie Lavigne Lapan who lived with other ‘swamp people’ at the Monument farm in Highgate Springs, along with the Barrett's, Maskells, Cotas, Phillips, Hakeys and Gardners who have appeared in Highgate often over the past two hundred years.” 951

“The data for Highate conclusively lays [sic] to rest the limited notion of the 18th century Indian village as a concentrated population of fifty households at the Monument farm with the rest of the area largely used for hunting, fishing or gathering. As Moody (1970) and the Petition speculated, the dispersed group lifestyle was an institution at Missisquoi which has sustained the Abenaki community into the 20th century.”

Footnote 950. RP: 225; & Family chart #’s 5-6, 14 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 951. RP: 226; & Family chart #’s 7, 8, 11, 12, 17 & 18 in Appendix 11.

Page 229-230:Samuel Barrett and Sarah Morits appear for the first time in any local records with a large family in one area.”

Joseph De Maire (Demar/Mora/Morits) appears in another section of twon with an extended family household. And eight Indian families are cited in one group including three more De Mairs (Demar/Morits), tow Hinuses (Anus/Hanks), a Barnharnt (Benedict), an Olds and the large John Phillips family mentioned above.”

Samuel Barratt and Sarah Morits, along with the Olds and Phillips families, reflect the close links to the Highgate woods where a large, dispersed neighborhood of Olds, Morits and other families were living in 1840. 971

“In 1850, the Franklin woods Indian population increased to over one hundred in the census including the Samuel and Sarah Morits Barrett and John Phillips families living on the Franklin/Highgate line.” 973

Footnote 971. See 1840 Highgate census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #’s 5-6, 17 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 973. See household #’s 262 & 272 in 1850 Highgate census in Appendix 1B.

Page 231: “The Benjamin (Barnes/Barratt) family had an early 19th century link to Lake Memphramagog discussed earlier here.” 979

“In fact, the Demar and Morits families, like the Benjamin, Barrat and Beyor families, were one large extended family that split, Abenaki fashion, into branches with different names in the early 19th century.” 981

Footnote 979. See Benjamin cards in AA; & Family chart #’s 16, 17 & 18 in appendix 11. See also Benjamin Small family history in Section V here & genealogy in RP.
Footnote 981. See Barratt, Beyor, Benjamin, Demar & Morits cards in AA. See also Barratt & Demar Central family, Beyor Other family, Benjamin Small family & Morits Ancestral family histories in Section V.

Page 233: “In another section of the Franklin woods closer to Highgate, a large Barratt family was living next door to Demarrar (Demar) and Wood (Brisbois) families. 990 The Wood (Brisbois) family was another associated with Lake Memphramagog and the Abenaki Reservation near Durham, Quebec.” 991

Footnote 990. See household #’s 362-4 in 1860 Franklin census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #’s 7 & 11 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 991. Day 1981:77-8 & Brisbois cards in AA.

Page 234: “By 1860 the Franklin woods Indian population documented in available records had peaked. In 1900, there were half the number of families living in Franklin with the Barrett's having moved on to Highgate and Swanton, and the Phillips families back ‘on the ladder’ from Maine to New York State. 998

Footnote 998. See 1790-1984 Franklin & Sheldon summary in Appendix 1A; & Family chart #’s 5-6, 7 & 18 in Appendix 11.

Page 237: [Sheldon: 1800 – 1920.] “Given the expanded size of the Missiquoi village to include all of Highgate up the Missisquoi River as well as Franklin, logic obviates the Abenaki use of Sheldon in a similar fashion as Moody (1979) has speculated. 1013

Footnote 1013. Moody 1979:12.

Page 242: “In the 1810 census, three Indian families were cited living in a small enclave somewhere in Sheldon. 1032 The Anus (Hanks) Missisquoi Abenaki family and...

Footnote 1032. See 1810 Sheldon census in Appendix 1B.

Page 243: “All of these families are associated with the early Missisquoi village and appear in other towns in the area that same year. 1034 It is entirely possible that these families were acting in the traditional ‘front family’ roles for Sheldon like the Morits family was in Highgate and the Carley (Medor) family was in Swanton. By 1820, they were either gone or not listed in the census.
While it is not known when the Sheldon’s barn was burned after 1790, the forge and ‘other buildings’ could not have been set afire until after 1799. Given the appearance, and disappearance of the Abenaki families in town and Whitney’s reluctant admission to the Indian threat to seek revenge down to the ‘last war’ [War of 1812], it is most likely that the major conflicts occurred after 1810. 1035 More research is needed to verify this scenario, but it fits with the known facts. The only other time a group of Abenakis were living there was 1830 when three families of Morrows (Morits), Patennodes (Patenode) and Mitchells were listed there in the census. 1036 The effect of George Sheldon’s direct attacks on the Abenakis is clear in the hundred and twenty year perspective from 1790 to 1910: the Indians stayed away. Ironically, the notions of Abenaki ‘disappearance’ and George Sheldon’s ruthlessness did not protect his barn or businesses from being burned.”

Footnote 1034. See Georgia, Highgate, Northfield and South Hero 1810 censuses in Appendix 1B. See Swatson account in Section I here; the Hanks (Anus) Ancestral & Gardner Central family history in Section V here; & Family chart #’s 7 & 15 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 1035. Whitney 1871:373.
Footnote 1036. See 1830 Sheldon census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #”s 5-4, 7, 8, 11, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 21 & 22 in Appendix 11.

Page 244: “And it ultimately did not prevent the Abenakis from regaining use of the Towle farm campground from that friendlier family in the mid-19th century. Instead, it gives more credence to the general Abenaki use of the entire area from Swanton and Highgate all the way at least to Lake Carmi and the Towle farm in Sheldon as their village area as Moody (1979) hypothesized”.

Page 245: “Thousands of Indians lived throughout the area in extreme poverty during the whole 200 years since their lands and village were taken. Though Sheldon had obviously been a part of the Abenaki village grounds before 1810 and 1790 [sic], it was largely a temprorary campground and home for perhaps thirty Abenakis since 1800.”

Page 251: The key figure in all of this on the non-Indian side was undoubtedly Jesse Weldon, the first settler of St. Albans. Like John Hilliker, Henry Lampman and other early settlers to the area before the end of the Revolution, Jesse Weldon had to deal with the local Indians who were at full military strength in the area and largely free to protect their lands and interests. Until very recently it has been assumed, from his lifestyle and ease with the Indians that he himself was of “Indian descent”. 1066

Page 254: “A family of Hendrins (Henris/Henry/Hendris.Hendricks) was also listed next door in the same area on the Point. Eli Henri later shows up on Walling’s 1857 map of the Point. 1075 The Henry family is stated in oral history to have been a local Indian family related to the Bellvue Other family who’s most recent members one Cameron Other family informant recalls speaking the Abenaki language in the early 20th century. 1076 Henry (Hendricks) families also turn up in Fairfield, Highgate and Alburg in direct association and intermarriage with the Hanks (Anus), Nicholas, Benedicts and other Abenaki families in the census and church registers. 1077 There is now firm evidence that the Henry and Hanks (Anus) families were branches of one family which stemmed from the old Anus (Annance) Missisquoi Abenaki family name. 1078

Footnote 1075. See Walling [1857] St. Albans/Fairfield map in Appendix 6C; & Family chart # 19 in Appendix 11.

Page 257: “The Crapo (Capino/Pinawans/Compient/Campbell) family has a long, solid history associated with Missiquoi from the period of Robertson’s lease to St. Albans Bay in 1800. 1091 A branch of the family is closely associated with Odanak and migration to northern New Hampshire and Maine by the 1795 to 1805 period. 1092

Footnote 1091. Day 1981: 69, 78.
Footnote 1092. Ibid: 59, 78. See Benjamin, Joseph, Louis & Marie Capino cards in Capino (Crapo) cards in AA.

Page 258: “Just as the pre-eminence of the Morits family in the community is linked back to the account of Chief Swasson Morits, the Crapo family leadership in the Abenaki effort to remain at St. Albans Bay while land struggles raged in other areas was clearly an outgrowth of Madam Crapo’s role.”

Page 262: “As mentioned already, the Morits families from Highgate appear in St. Albans Bay by 1830. One John Morits (Morris/Maurice) who was living in St. Albans was married to a Julia De Mora (DesMarrais/Demar) which documents a clear link between those two central families at an early date. 1107 A second, older John Morits was married to a Richards Central family member from St. Albans Bay in the same period. 1108 He was the brother of the William Morits from …”

Footnote 1107. See John Morice card in Morits family cards in AA & 1841 O’Callaghan register in Appendix 5A; & Family chart #’s 5-6 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 1108. RP: 225; & Family chart #’s 5-6 & 18 in Apendix 11. See John Morits card in AA.

Page 263: “…Swanton found in the Martin Central family genealogy as well as the brother of the Julia Morits who married Henry Lampman and were both documented living in several area Abenaki neighborhoods from 1822 to 1888 in Section I. 1109 There is even direct evidence that the Marrais (Demar/Morits) family was interacting with the Crapo (Chanbeau) family in mid-19th century St. Albans.” 1110

Footnote 1109. RP: 225; & Family chart #’s 5-6 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 1110. See 1855 in St. Marie’s register in Appendix 5B.

Page 266: “The Waggoner’s were the Dutch family like the Lampman’s who rented from the Abenakis at the Missisquoi village after the Revolution.” 1131

Footnote 1131. Moody 1979: 28-34.

Page 270: “When conflict did arise, there were always major community leaders like Oliver and Mary Young Cameron at the Bay, Nazaire St. Francis, Martha Morits Lampman or Cadell Brow in Swanton, John Lapan, George Lafrance and Sophie Blair Partlow in Highgate or George and Emma Jane Como Demar in Franklin and St. Albans who would ‘see to the fish’ and any other valuable, limited subsistence asset like Swasson Morits did at the Missisquoi delta fishing grounds before 1800. 1151

Footnote 1151. See Family History & Leadership chart in Appendix 2.

Page 272: “The Mitchell, St. Anus (Anus/Hanks/Annance), Ladou (Glode/Claude/Pagn) and Caten (Capino/Crapo) families identified with Odanak and old Missisquoi definitively anchor the St. Albans Bay in the 18th century Missisquoi Abenaki community.”

Page 284: “As in the cases drawn from the early to mid-19th century, these St. Albans families today have many members who live in other neighborhoods with the rest of the Indian community. All the family charts presented in Appendix 11 have St. Albans components including the ‘travelers’. 1225 Recent interviews in the Lampman and Martin families also have shown that the Indians living in the large Bay neighborhood, along with the Blocks, Federal St., Lake Street and Fairfield Hill area, were well known to the Swanton and Highgate Indian network. 1226

Footnote 1225. RP:222-7; & Family chart #’s 2-22 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 1226. Moody, Field Notes, 1983-85.

Page 287: “The Benedict and St. Francis families also have direct ties to Milton which have been documented in Moody (1979) and the Petition. 1239 Polly Benedict of Milton purchasesd one of the small islands off St. Albans bay in 1858. 1240 Henry Lampman and Julia Ann Morits were also living in Milton in 1843 when their daughter Elizabeth…”

Footnote 1239. Moody 1979: 59-9 fn 36.
Footnote 1240. Moody 1979: 58 n 36. See also Milton cards in AA.

Page 288: “…was born. 1241 And one Lampman family tradition indicates that some of the Francis/St. Fancis family moved up from Milton in the mid-19th century before they settled into Back Bay by 1870.” 1242

“One older Morits/Cameron member today even recalls growing up in early, 20th century Milton, in association with William Simon and Mary Morits Obomsawin from Grand Isle, as well as with the Henry (Hanks/Anus) Ancestral family from Georgia, the Islands and St. Albans Bay.” 1245

Footnote 1241. See Elizabeth Lampman card Lampman cards in AA.
Footnote 1242. 78, 6/28/81:5.
Footnote 1243. Moody 1979:61 fn 39.
Footnote 1244. 2422, 1835:2 col # 4; Day 1978:278: RP:2-3, 32, etc.
Footnote 1245. Moody, Field Notes, 1977-85.

Page 295: [North Hero] “Like St. Albans Bay, five members of the Hanks (Hance/Anus/Henry) family are the first Abenakis to show up in the 1790 census records in North Hero. 1281 Down to 1840, each decade’s census cites at least one Hanks (Annic/Anus) family with a consistency comparable to the Highgate Morits family history in the same period. 1282 This family represents a direct link to Robertson’s lease as well as 18th and 19th century Odanak and the present day Missisquoi Abenaki community. 1283 In 1810, Aden Anus and family had the Enos Morrow (Morits) and Frederick Depone (Depot/Crapo) families for neighbors on Knights Island off St. Albans Bay. 1284

Footnote 1281. See 1790 No. Hero census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #’s 2 & 15 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 1282. See 1790, 1810, 1830 & 1840 No. Hero censuses & 1790-1840 St. Albans censuses in Appendix 1B.
Footnote 1283. Day 1981: 173; RP: 173; Hanks (Anus) Ancestral family history in Section V; & Hanks & Annance family cards in AA.
Footnote 1284. See 1810 No. Hero census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #’s 5-6, 12, 13, 15, 18 & 22 in Appendix 11.

Page 298: [Alburg] “In 1830, several families including Mantrane (Mountain/Martin/Montagne) and Attust (Attucks/Toxis?) are listed in the census as ‘aliens’. 1299 These are names in transition from their 18th to their 20th century versions. The present day Cheney Other family derives from this same Martin (Montagne/Mountain/Watso) family branch in Alburg which was mentioned in Dixon’s (1871) history of Alburg cited earlier here. 1300 This Martin/Montange family is a close branch of the Martin Central family found in the contemporary Indian community in Swanton and Highgate. 1301 Accounts of ties to the Watso/Montagne Abenaki family from Odanak are found in the descendants of this family in the present membership. 1302 The Attust family name is very close to the old Abenaki name ‘Attucks’ linked to Stockbridge and Schaticook. The name is also close to the original spelling of the Toxis family name from Odanak.” 1303
From 1840 to the 1880’s, Ralph Lessor (Lazare) was an established farmer and leader of an Indian family living in West Alburg (Dist # 3) on the Canadian border. 1304 
The Lazare (Leiger/Lawere/Lazalis/Laezie/ Legur) family is a branch of the Benedict family which appeared about 1800 in the Durham Abenaki community near Odanak. 1305 They also appear in the early Swanton and Highgate censuses on record as well. 1306

Footnote 1299. See 1830 Alburg census in Appendix 1B. RP:64.
Footnote 1300. Dixon 1871:473; RP:3.
Footnote 1301. See Cheney Other family genealogy in RP; & Family chart #”s 5-6, 14 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 1302. Moody, Field Notes, 1977-85; Day 1981:99.
Footnote 1303. Day 1981:95-6.
Footnote 1304. See 1840, 1850 & 1860 Alburg censuses in Appendix 1B; & 1870 Alburg census in AA. See also Walling [1857] map of Alburg in Appendix 6A.
Footnote 1305. See Lazare family card #’s 1-3 in AA.
Footnote 1306. See 1810, 1830 & 1850 household # 4 Swanton censuses, 1810 & 1840 Highgate censuses in Appendix 1B. RP: 64, 73.

Page 299: “They had a particularly close relationship with the Benedicts and Medors at Missisquoi, and evidence is growing that most of the families with that name remained in the Missisquoi Bay area in the early to mid-19th century. 1307
The Pierre Kesia (Medor Kazia/Peter Medor) and Marie Laezia (Lazare) who were Mary Kesia’s parents at her 1822 Odanak marriage, and most likely also Peter Cajais’s (Medard Kazia/Peter Medor/ born abt. 1803) parents, were probably the same as Peter Carley and family from Swanton.1308 And finally, there is the Lewis Leiger (Lazare) family connection to So. Hero which has already been noted in Moody (1979) and the Petition. 1309 He was from Odanak, the last Lazare family member known in that Abenaki community, and he was married to an Abenaki Tahamont (Thompson) family member. 1310 A family of Tompson’s appears living near the Ralph Lessor (Lazare) family in 1870, the same year of this Lazare citation at So. Hero. Other Thompson families were common in the 19th century Island and core town neighborhoods, and a Small family of that name is part of the contemporary community.” 1311
“Furthermore, this Louis Lazare who is listed in as an ‘Indian basket maker’ in South Hero in 1870, returned to Odanak by 1873 where he is listed with his wife in a census. 1312 In the next census in 1875, Louis Lazare had passed away and his wife “Margaret…”

Footnote  1307. Moody 1979: 49, 55 fn 31; RP: 63, 72.
Footnote  1308. See Mary Kesia card in Medor cards in AA; 1800-1820 Swanton censuses, & 1830 Highgate census in Appendix 1B. As ‘Cady’, ‘Peter Cailey’ and ‘Peter Carley’ in Swanton [1800-1820], and ‘Peter Carley’ in Highgate [1830], he is the right age to the same person as Pierre Kesia/Peter Medor/Medard Kazia.
Footnote 1309. Moody 1979:63-4” RP: 82.
Footnote 1310. Day 1981:82.
Footnote 1311. See Thompson Small family history in Section V.
Footnote 1312. 129:5.

Page 300: “…Abenaquis” had moved ‘back to the U.S.”. 1313 Most likely she had moved back to Missisquoi in South Hero or Alburg, where she was from and where at least one of her children had been buried in 1868. 1314 Like the Obomsawin’s and Panadis from Odanak who lived in Grand Isle and visited the Highgate Springs for the basket trade, Louis Lazare had married a Missisquoi Abenaki woman who still had a substantial family in Grand Isle County.”

“The Lazare family history at Missisquoi parallels that of the Lawyer, Shedwick, Partlow and Benway branch of the Benedicts who lived on both sides of the border and show up clearly in Alburg and the Islands.”

There is strong evidence that the Lawyer family name derives from an Abenaki pronounciation of ‘Ryea’, which was interchangeable with the Kazia/Medor Central family name in the 19th century.”

Footnote 1313. Day 1981: 82.
Footnote 1314. 169, 4/5/1868.

Page 301: “The present Partlow Central family derives their ancestry from the Alburg Partlow’s; and the James Partlow, ‘shoemaker’ cited in 1870 was great grandfather to the present generation of Partlows. 1319 Intermarriage with the Bohannon Small family has been documented, and oral tradition within the Partlow family claims that the family name comes from an ancient Indian name. 1320 There is some evidence to suggest that the name may be a branch pronunciation of the Patnode/Patena Missisquoi Abenaki name.

Footnote 1319. See Family chart #’s 10 & 14 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 1320. 2204, 9/28/81:1-2.

Page 303: “Every town is both a contributor to the whole and a bridge to families further away who leave and return to their homeland. The basic size and shape of the Abenaki community reflected in the Petition without a lot of primary data has turned out to be true with the recent indepth research. With this data has come numerous historical and genealogical links between the Abenaki Nation of Vermont and the 18th century Abenaki Nation at Missisquoi.”

Page 304: “Family by Family evidence presented in Moody (1979) and the Petition has definitively linked the Morits, Medor and St. Francis families back to Abenaki ancestors. 1402 Oral histories were also sampled in some depth in the Petition with the clear impression left that more than ‘a few’ and perhaps even several hundred Indians remained in Vermont after 1800. 1403 Leading families like the Morits, Lampman, Gardner, Demar, St. Francis, Lapan, Patnode, Barratt and Partlow family groups were clearly names as ‘Indians’, ‘St. Francis Indians’ or ‘Abenakis’ in these oral traditions. As such they have given the best evidence of the contemporary…

Footnote 1401. Moody 1979: 64: RP: 211-12, 119-21; RP: Appendix IV D (1976 Tribal Roll). See also 1980-1984 Franklin, Grand Isle & Chittenden County summary in Appendix 1A.
Footnote 1402. Moody 1979: 8, 42, 43, 45, 52, 58-9 fn 36, 60-61 fn 37, 62-4, 74 RP: 37, 61, 72-4, 76-9, 89-92, 222-7 & Morits, Medor & St. Francis Central family genealogies in RP. See also Family chart #’s 2, 3, 4, 5-6, 7,8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 18, 21 & 22 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 1403. RP: 6,7,10, 27, 64, 75, 78,81, 82 fn 18, 84, 87, 89-96, 97, 98-9, 113.

Page 305: “…community’s existence as an Indian group distinct from the non-Indian world.
The data presented here in Section I and the first part of Section II has continued to weave many new pieces of information into the pattern of an identifiable Indian community using oral tradition, local church and town archives, as well as US census records. Now, the St. Albans Bay, Swanton, Highgate and Franklin accounts of the ‘St. Francis Indians’ from the late 18th and early 19th centuries have been conclusively linked to the contemporary community. The records and oral historiesindependently concur that the Morits (Tanagite), Francis (St. Francis), Lapan (Coos/Pine), Gardner (Denn/Maurice), Demar (Mora/Morits), Medor (Kazia/Ryia), Phillips, Crapo (Capino), Ladue (Glode/Claude/Pagonowit), Hanks (Henry/Anus), Benedict (Panadis), St. Lawrence (Momtock) and Patenode (Patenas) families, among others, were living at the Monument and in the surrounding areas both before and after 1800. Fiftey four Central, Other, Small, and Ancestral family names associatied with the present Abenaki community have been directly tied back to the 18th century Missisquoi Abenaki community, fourteen to Robertson’s lease itself. 1405 The data dovetails so closely with Day’s recent work [“Identity of the St. Francis Indians” published in 1981 researched and compiled by Dr. Gordon M. Day] done on the Odanak Abenaki families that the fact of at least 700 Abenakis having remained in northwestern Vermont from 1800 to 1840 is now firmly established.” 1406

“The Odanak Abenaki like William Simon Obomsawin, Nicholas Panadis (Benedict), Lewis Leiger (Lazare) and Frank Roberts (Robert-Obomsawin) who returned to Lake Champlain after 1830 and were explicitely cited as ‘Indians’ in the late 19th and early 20th century census and town records were also part of the larger, local Indian community b[y?] descendance from and intermarriage with the Maurice (Morits), Thompson (Tahamont), Lazare and Hance (Hanks/Anus) Missisquoi Abenaki families. 1407 Clear evidence of Odanak…

Footnote 1405. See 1790-1984 Franklin, GI [Grand Isle] & Chittenden County summary of names in Appendix 1A.
Footnote 1406. Day 1981 76-100.
Footnote 1407. Moody 1979:63-4, 73-7; RP: 81-3; household # 214 in 1910 St. Albans census in Appendix 1B; Ed Hance card in Hanks cards in AA; & Family chart #”s 5-6, 15, 17 & 18 in Appendix 11.

Page 306: …and Missisquoi Abenaki names spelled phonetically from the Western Abenaki language in the early Catholic registers and town records provides further confirmation of the families’ identity. And two of the subsistence groups of 100 to 150 Indian ‘swamp people’ who were originally unknown have now been identified with the Morits and Lapan families (in Highgate) and the Patnode and Cameron families (in No. Hero) in this Addendum. These four families stood out in both Indian and non-Indian memory of the subsistence groups, as they were the core ‘front’ families at the time. All of this data provides the first direct evidence in the 19th and 20th centuries that the ancestors of present members were linked to an Abenaki group since the 18th century.
Oral traditions in the Indian community dating back to the early 20th century provide the first comprehensive overview for the network of Indian neighborhoods in northwestern Vermont after 1800. Several informants have given both summaries of their own families and neighborhood. 1407a
The town lines, lifestyle distinctions and name list breakdowns used in Moody (1979) and the Petition are largely artificial divisions of the whole community. 1407b
As useful as each distinction made within the community is for explanations, the oral traditions make it clear that the network of families has been and still is one entity in one place. All of the family charts in Appendix 11 list figures who have engaged in the three basic lifestyles and most of the Indian families have been noted in each of the core town’s from 1800 to 1920. 1407c

Footnote 1407a. 6; 7; 76; 78; 206; 210; 211; 213; 2076; 2078; 2080; 2102; 2110; 2277 & 2507.
Footnote 1407b. Moody 1979: 47-50, 77; RP: 83-6, 88-9, 117-8, 141-4, 222-9; RA: 10.
Footnote 1407c. See town-by-town Name summaries in Appendix 1A; Family history & Leadership chart in Appendix 2 here as well as the Family histories & Family chart #’s 2-22 in Appendix 11 of the Addendum Part C.

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