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Thursday, October 28, 2010

Preliminary Report on Abenaki Petition for Tribal Recognition - [Exhibits]: March 12, 2002: Exhibit 2 - Continued:

United States Department of the Interior
Office of Indian Affairs
Positively no papers to be added or taken from this file, except by an employee of the Mails and Files Division.
File No. 671 - 1935 (150)
Gladys Tantaquidgeon's report on community life, etc.,
of New England Indian Groups
Gladys Tantaquidgeon (June 15, 1899 to November 01, 2005) was a Mohegan anthropologist, author, council member, and elder.
Page 01
December 06 1934
Letter to: the Honorable John Collier
Commission on Indian Affairs
Washington, D.C.

Page 02
December 06 1934

Letter to: the Honorable John Collier
Commission on Indian Affairs
Washington, D.C.
Page 01
The New England Indians
Contact With Eurpoeans. The earliest description of the aborigines inhabiting the coast from the present Maine to New York was written by the Italian navigator Verrazano who established contact with the natives in 1524-25. (1) Other accounts were given by the French and English voyagers, Gosnold (1602) (2), Champlain (1605) (3), John Smith (1615) (4), Josselyn (1638) and others. Dutch contacts came by way of the Connecticut river about 1614. (6) The English settlement at Plymouth, Massachusetts marked the beginning of permanent occupation by Europeans of the area.
Population. That the Indians in New England numbered about 25,000 in 1600 was the estimate given by the late James Mooney in 1921. (7)
Linguistic Identification. All of the New England tribes belonged to what is known as Eastern-Central Division of the Algonkian linguistic stock. (8)
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Page 02
Classification According to Culture. The New England Tribes belonged to what is known as the Eastern Algonkian Division of the Eastern Woodland Culture Area. Following a survey of certain culture features, the New England area has been sub-divided as outlined in studies prepared by Dr. Dixon (1), Dr. Speck (2) and other authorities in the field of Anthropology. In brief, the outlines refer to a 'northern' and a 'southern' division, the Merrimac river serving as an approximate boundary line between the two. North of the Merrimac were the Wabanaki peoples. (3) Some of the better known tribes in the Wabanaki=Abenaki Confederacy in New England were the Pigwacket, Sokoki, Arrosaguntacook, Norridgewock, Wawenock, and the surviving bands, the Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Malecite and the neighboring Micmac in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. Hunting was an important factor in the life of the Wabanaki. Other features of the northern division were the family hunting territories, rather loosely organized society, and the confederacy patterned after that of the Iroquois. The extensive use of birchbark covered tipi, and distinctive features in decorative art (4) characterized the northern portion of the area. Archaeological remains show limited forms in utensils and the pottery, when found, is crude.
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Page 03
Classification According to Culture. (continued)
In the southern portion of the area there wre confederated tribes which took their names (confederacy) from the larger ruling tribes such as the Massachusetts, Wampanoag, Nauset, Pocumtuc, Nipmuc, Mohegan-Pequot, Narragansett, and Wappinger. In contrast to Wabanaki culture, the tirbes of the southern New England ara were more dedentary and practised agriculture. They were more closely organized and the ruling chiefs exercised absolute authority over their subjects. The mat covered dome-shaped dwellings, long and round houses, and the dug out canoe were characteristic of this portion of the area. Pottery and decorative show Iroquoian influence. Archaeological remains show a variety of forms and a greater abundance.
Decline and Dispersion. That the Indian tribes of New England were unable to survive the destructive powers of the new civilization which, were forced upon them is well known. Epidemics of small pox and fevers killed thousands. Many lost their lives in the wars of the 17th and 18th centuries. A few sough refuge with the tribes to the north and west of them, thus severing connections with their respective bands. With the exception of the tribes in Maine, the remaining Indian population, in New England is made up of decultured remnant groups.
The preceding resume will serve as an introduction to the notes on the present status of the surviving bands which follow.
Page 04
Social Status. There are nearly 3,000 Indian descendants in the surviving bands in the New England area. Due to the absence of tribal records, the custom of listing the Indians as 'black' or 'negro' in certain records, and the lack of anthropological data it is impossible to prepare an accurate and detailed account of the mixed bloods in the area. We have evidence to show that this intermixture began early and has continued within the various groups. In view of this blending for over a period of several centuries it is not surprising to find that the degree of Indian blood in the veins of the large percentage of our Indian descendants is slight. In the northern portion of the area, among the Wabanaki peoples, there has been a strong infusion of French blood since early times, and also some English, Scotch, and Irish. These are more northerly groups escaped the infusion of Negro blood, for which they are duly glad. (It is quite sage to say that the Penobscot and Passamaquoddy average about 1/2 Indian blood. A few approach 3/4. A few claim the distinction of being full blooded Indians and whom shall we delegate to refute the statements made by these individuals in regard to degree of Indian blood? This situation requires special handling. At the moment, the problem confronting the members of these two groups is what to do with the increasing number of whites who are marrying Indian descendants and going back to the reservation to live. The agent and Indian leaders say that the whites who marry Indian of 1/4 Indian blood or less, as a rule, have large families which have to be supported out of the tribal funds. The Indians realize that unless they make a move to remedy this state of affairs, that there is trouble ahead. The mixed Indian groups have
Page 05
Social Status. (continued)
intermarried so that in one group we find a number of tribes represented. In the case of the Penobscot we find that the Malecite have contributed largely in making up the group, it being estimated by some of the leaders of the tribe that the present group is 50% Malecite. The Passamaquoddy have fewer Indians from the other tribes listed among them.
In southern New England, our Indian communities have been, and still are, melting pots. Beginning with the early French and English contacts, and continuing through the later period of intensive whaling industries along our coast during which time the men from many lands married and settled in the Indian communities, the march has gone and the Indian blood continues to be diluted. The infusion of Negro blood was strong in this portion of the area in certain tribes and scientists are of the opinion that many of the smaller tribes along the coast became completely absorbed. (1) Here there are but few who are of 1/2 Indian blood and a mere handful can claim 3/4 Indian blood. The majority average 1/4 or less. There appears to have less intermarriage among the members of the mixed-indian groups in southern New England which may have attributed to the feuds of earlier days. The old animosities die hard not only in the attiude of the Indians toward the members of other Indian groups but also toward the whites. Final figures cannot be furnished until our tribal records have been properly prepared and tot he satisfaction of all concerned. This will require more time and in some cases the services of an anthropologist may be needed.
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Page 06
Social Status. (continued)
The most complex case is that the Narragansett of Rhode Island who number more than 250 descendants. It is well known that the degree of Indian blood in the Narragansett descendants is low. (1) In view of certain social and political factors to be considered in this particular case it is necessary to proceed slowly.
In introducing facts it has been stated that the intermixture in the area has been constant since the beginning of outside contacts. In spite of the hetergeneous group composition as found in New England many of the aboriginal culture traits persisted among the mixed Idnians until a fairly late date. It would seem that many of the aliens who joined our groups in early times became absorbed and became a part of Indian society. The blending has continued and the blood has become more and more diluted but the fact that we find these remnant groups living like Indians, as nearly as possible, and clinging tenacioiusly to the few surviving culture properties makes us feel less alarmed when told that our New England Indians are on the verge of complete assimilation or when one is branded the "last of the mohegan or Mohican."
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Page 07 - 1
New England Groups 1934
Page 08 - 2
New England Groups 1934
Page 09 - 3
New England Groups 1934
Page 10 - 4
New England Groups 1934
Page 11 - 5
New England Groups 1934
Page 12 - 6
New England Groups 1934
Page 14 - 06 A
New England Groups 1934
(Culture Survivals)
Page 15 - 06 B
New England Groups 1934
(Culture Survivals)

Preliminary Report on Abenaki Petition for Tribal Recognition - [Exhibits]: March 12, 2002: Exhibit 2 - Continued:

H. R. Schoolcraft
Historical and Statistical Information
on the Indian Tribes of the United States
See abstract of Schoolcraft's work in table at beginning of Exhibit 2. The abstract is based on an examination of Schoolcraft's six-volume work which is available at the Special Collections Department of the University of Vermont Libraries.
Smithsonian Institution
Bureau of American Ethnology
Bulletin 30
Handbook of American Indians
North of Mexico
Edited by Frederick Webb Hodge
In Two Parts
Part 1
Government Printing Office
ABNAKI Page 03
ABNAKI Page 04
Missiassik (on the etymology of the name, see McAleer, Study in the Etymology of Missisquoi, 1906). An Algonquin tribe or body of Indians belonging to the Abnaki group, formerly living on Missisquoi river in N. (northern) Vermont. Whether they formed a distinct tribe or a detached portion of some known Abnaki tribe is uncertain. If the latter, which seems probable, as the name "Wanderers" was sometimes applied to them, it is possible they were related to the Sokoki or to the Pequawket. They had a large village at the mouth of Missisquoi river, in Franklin county, on Lake Champlain, but abandoned it about 1730 on account of the ravages of an epidemic, and removed to St. Francis, Quebec. They subsequently sold their claims in Vermont to the "Seven Nations of Canada." Chauvignerie in 1736 gives 180 as the number of their warriors of 800. They seem to have been on peacable terms with the Iroquois.
The American Indian in the United States
Period 1850 - 1914
By Warren K. Moorehead, A.M.
The Present Condition of the American Indian;
His Political History and Other Topics
The Andover Press
Andover, Massachusetts
Chapter III. The Indians Today
and Hon. E.E. Ayers Report
Page 32
The American Indian
Diagram of the Indian Service
The Indians are under the jurisdiction of the State of Maine. The Penobscots own all the islands in the Penobscot River between Oldtown and Millinockett. They are, for the most part, guides, farmers, carpenters, clerks and lumbermen. Many of them earn excellent wages--from $2 to $5 per day. I saw no evidences of poverty. The people are intelligent and of good character. Consumption is not common, and trachoma cases are rare.
Page 33

The reason for the splendid condition of the Penobscot and Passamaquoddy Indians should not be lost upon our officials and Indian Committees in authority in Congress.
They have been surrounded by a high class of white people, and have been left alone to develop and progress. While they have been protected by the State of Maine, no discrimination has been made against them, as in the case of Indians in Oklahoma, Minnesota, California and elsewhere. They enjoy the same citizenship as is conferred upon Whites, and its does not consist of "paper promises," but is real and effective. Theirs is no story of dishonesty and disease.
The past summer, while on an archaeological expedition on the St. John River, I visited three villages occupied by Malacite Indians, in New Brunswick, Canada. All of them are well situated, one at the mouth of the Tobique River; another at Edmonton; and a third near Woodstock. While these Indians are poor, there is no general pauperism, and their general health is better than among the Indians I have visited in our United States (exclusive of Maine).
In one respect the plans followed by the Canadian officials are superior to ours, and evidence more ability (or rather stability) in the handling of the Indians. Instead of allotting these Indians, giving theirs deeds to valuable property, permitting them to be swindled by unscrupulous white persons, and then spending years in profitless litigation, in an attempt to make grafters return property taken from the Indians, these Canadians have continued the reservation system under a modified form. The Indians own their tracts of land, as with us, but do not hold deeds, or trust patents to same, therefore the lands cannot be sold or mortgaged; thus the incentive to fraud is removed.
The Indians serve as farmers, guides, carpenters and fishermen. Most of them are Catholics, and there is a priest located at the Tobique, village. He lives among them and encourages them in various arts. The census gives a few Indians as residing in our eastern states, but they are white people in every way, save color. To discover the next body of Indians exceeding more than three or four hundred, we must go down South where we find a few bands of Cherokees in Swain and Jackson Counties, North Carolina; and scattered throughout Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama there are 1100 or 1200 residing on what was originally a part of the habitat of this great nation.
Some of the Iroquois still reside in western New York, notably in settlements not far from Buffalo. These Indians, as in the case of the North Carolina Cherokees, are chiefly mixed-bloods, have adopted our

Page 35 
customs, live in fairly comfortable houses and are in no need of Government supervision. Among the Iroquois of New York, the percentage of tuberculosis and other diseases was so low as to be practically nil. In one of the recent Government reports it is given as but a fraction over one per cent.

There has recently developed agitation seeking to break up their reservation. This is most unfortunate, as the tracts are small; the Indians are doing well and desire to be let alone. They deserve to remain in peaceful possession of their old-time homes.

All of the remaining Indians east of the Mississippi, and south of the Great Lakes need not enter into our discussion. Save for a noticeable Indian color in the case of some individuals, the bulk of them have ceased to be real Indians. The New York Iroquois, in recent times, have made creditable progress in arts, and have produced a number of prominent men and women: A large number of them serve in responsible positions and so far as they are concerned there is no Indian problem. We may, therefore, eliminate the eastern half of the United States, with the exception of Wisconsin, Michigan and Florida.
In Florida we have the descendants of the Seminoles, estimated at 600, and are an offshoot of the Creeks, or Muskokis. These still cling to their ancient homes in the Everglades, and have withstood all attempts to make of them either educated Indians or agency Indians. During Mr. Leupp's administration, he proposed to me that I go to Florida and spend a winter cultivating the friendship of these Indians and see if it were not possible to persuade them to send their children to school. I was unable to carry this mission into effect, but I understand that recently the Government sent a Special Agent there, who has compelled a number of the children to attend school. The draining of the Everglades is now well under way, and soon the hunting and fishing-grounds of these people will be very much restricted. They have always been self-supporting and they merit consideration, and should have our help. It is to be hoped that before the ditching of the Everglades is completed, these Indians will be properly provided for. This is a subject I would commend to the attention of the Federal authorities.
In Wisconsin we have quite a large number of Indians at the present, time, located on reservations, or clustered about schools. These number 9,930, and Wisconsin ranks ninth in the entire country in point of Indian population. Wisconsin is the first State, on our inspection tour from the East to the West, wherein we find a large body of Indians still in the transition period. They belong to the following bands: — the Ojibwa (Chippewa), Menominee, Potawatomi, Oneida, Winnebago and a few others.

Preliminary Report on Abenaki Petition for Tribal Recognition - [Exhibits]: March 12, 2002: Exhibit 2 - Continued:

An Alphabetical Enumeration of the Indian Tribes and Nations
ABENAKIES, over Maine till 1754, then went to Canada; 200 in 1689; 150 in 1780.
Indians and Tribes Page VI (06).
Mass.--AGAWAM (Wampanoags), at Sandwich, Mass.; others at Ipswich, ii. 46.
Maine--ALSIGUNTAKOOK (Abenaki), on sources Androscoggin, in Maine. iii. 136, 152.
Maine--AUOSISCO (Abenaki), between the Saco and Androscoggin River. ii. 48, iii. 93
Maine--CANIBAS, (Abenaki), numerous in 1607, and after, on both sides of the Kennebeck River.

Indian Tribes and Nations VII (07).
ECEMMINS--(Canoe-men) on River St. Johns; include Passmaquoddies and St. Johns.
Indian Tribes and Nations VIII (08).
GANAWESE, on the heads of Potomoc River; same as Kanhaways, probably.
GAYHEAD, Martha's Vineyard; 200 in 1800; in 1820, 340.
HASSANAMESITS, a tribe of Nipmuks, embraced christianity in 1660. ii. 51, 115.
Mass.--HERRING POND, a remnant of Wampanoags, in Sandwich, Mass.; about 40.
LENNA LENAPE, once from Hudson to Delaware River; now scattered in the West.
Indian and Tribes IX (09).
MANHATTANS, (Mohicans) once on the island where New York city now stands.
MARACHITES, (Abenakis) on the St. Johns; a remnant remains.
MARAPEAGUES, once on Long Island, 8. side of Oyster Bay; extinct.
MASHPEES, (Wampanoags) 315 in 1832; Barnstable Co., Mass.; mixed with blacks.
MASSACHUSETTS, the state perpetuates their name. ii. 42.
MITCHIGAMIES, on of the five tribes of the Illinois; location uncertain.
MOHEGANS, or MOHEAKUNNUKS, in 1610, Hudson River from Esopus to Albany. ii. 87, 97.
MONTAUKS, on E. end of Long Island, formerly; head of 13 tribes of this island.
NARRAGANSETS, S. side of the bay which perpetuates their name. ii. 21, 23, 38, 53.
NASHUAYS, (Nipmuks) on that river from its mouth, in Massachusetts.
NATIKS, (Nipmuks), in Massachusetts, in a town now called after them.
NIATIKS, a tribe of the Narragansets, and in alliance with them. ii. 67.
NIPMUKS, eastern interior of Mass.; 1,500 in 1775; extinct. ii. 18, 40, 100; iii. 91--Mass.
NORRIDGEWOKS, (Abenakis) on Penobscot River. See Book iii. 119, 127.
NYACKS, (Mohicans) or MASHATTANS, once about the Narrows, in New York.
Indians and Tribes X (10).
PAWTUCKETS, (Nipmuks), on Merrimac River, where Chelmford now is; extinct.
PAGANS, (Nipmuks), 10 in 1793, in Dudley, Mass., on a reservation of 200 acres.
PENOBSCOTS, (Abenakis) 330, on an island in Penobscot River, 12 miles above Bangor.
PENNAKOOKS, (Nimpuks) on Merrimac River, where is now Concord, N.H. iii. 94, 95.
PIQUAKETS, (Abenakis) on sources Saco River; destroyed by English in 1725.
PEQUOTS, about the mouth of the Connecticut River; subdued in 1637. ii. 101-110.
QUABAOGS, (Nipmuks) at a place of the same name, now Brookfield, Mass.
QUODDIES. See PASSAMAQUODIE.--3 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iii. 181.
RIVER, (Mohegans) S. of the Iroquois, down the N. side of Hudson River. iii. 97; v. 14.
Indians and Tribes XI (11).
SCATTAKOOKS, upper part of Troy, N.Y.; went from New England about 1672.
SHINIKOOKS, a tribe of Long Island, about what is now South Hampton.
SIX NATIONS, (Iroquois) Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, Shawane.
SOKOKIE, on Saco River, Maine, until 1725, when they withdrew to Canada.
STOCKBRIDGE, NEW, (Mohigans and Iroquois) collected in N.Y., 1786; 400 in 1820.
TARRATINES, E. of Pascataqua River; the Nipmuks so called the Abenakis.
Indians and Tribes XII (12).
TUNXIS, (Mohegans) once in Farmington, Conn.; monument erected to them, 1840.
WAMESITS, (Nipmuks) once on the Merrimac River, where Lowell, Mass., now is.
WAMPANOAG, perhaps the 3rd nation in importance in N.E. when settled by the English.

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