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Saturday, February 5, 2011

Articles of Amendment Form AHA "Abenaki Helping Abenaki; David Skinas on A.S.H.A. Inc. Board of Directors; Fred Wiseman Ph.D. and Eugene St. Onge with Luke A. Willard; Etc:

Page [1.]
MARCH 08, 2007  11:26 AM
Articles of Amendment Form
Domestic Non profits and Cooperatives
AHA "Abenaki Helping Abenaki"

Dawn Macie
Nancy Cote
Luke Willard

(a) 3 members to vote on amendments.
(b) 3 votes were cast for each amendment with no disputes on either. amendment. Member's who voted were Chad Abbott, Gail Girard, Candace Dague.


Dawn Macie
Page [2.]
N-25565 Continued....
MARCH 08, 2007 11:26 AM
Articles of Amendment Form

Registrar/ Trustee

Dawn Macie
DATE: March 07, 2007

$25.00 / Note: In the event that there is a problem with your application give us an email address or a phone number so that we can serve you faster. Please file in duplicate.

Deborah L. Markowitz
Corporation Information
Corporation Name:

Corporation Status:

File No:


Corporation Description:

State of Incorporation:

Fiscal Month End:

Registered Agent:

P.O. Box 1251

City State Zip:

Officer 1: DAWN MACIE
Officer 3: NANCY COTE

Principal Street Address:
322 ELM ST, APT 2

City State Zip:

06/06/2008 [June 06, 2008]
Above accurated as of 01/22/2011
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The Missisquoi Abenaki - Intervale Center Alliance
The Intervale Center and Chief April St. Francis Merrill of the St. Francis Sokoki band of the Abenaki Nation of Missisquoi formed a partnership in late 2007 to ensure that all ground disturbing activities planned by the Intervale Center would not adversely affect any Native American archaeological deposits, traditional cultural properties, sacred sites, and unmarked Abenaki burials.
The Intervale contain one of the best collections of ancient Native American archaeological sites known in Vermont. Native peoples lived within the Intervale for at least the last 5,000 years and perhaps longer, first in small seasonal encampments and later in semi-sedentary villages as cultivated foods became a more reliable and significant food source. The Intervale produced a vast amounty of animal, plant, and riverine resources that attracted ancient groups to this area to collect seasonally available foods and other needed resources. As agriculture developed, these people were able to harvest corn, beans, squash, and other cultigens with surplus foods stored in deep pits dug into the floors of their lodges. The earliest evidence of agriculture in the Intervale was documented during an archeological study of the Donahue site where charred corn kernels were radiocarbon dated to approximately 1450 AD. To this day Abenaki families continue to collect Intervale plants for food and medicinal purposes and fish the river.
The Missisquoi Abenaki will continue to work with the Intervale staff and board to protect these important sites. In the spirit of this partnership the Intervale Center offered a suitable repatriation plot to Chief April to reinter human remains found along Mallets Creek because it could guarantee perpetual protection of these burials through the Vermont Housing and Conservation Board easement. In July of 2008 three sets of human remains were reinterred on Intervale Center property in a remote and protected location.
--Chief April St. Francis Merrill, Abenaki Nation of Missisquoi, St. Francis/Sokoki Band

--David Skinas, Abenaki Self Help Association Incorporated, Intervale Center Board Member
Monday, June 9, 2008 10:06 PM
From: "Jdowbasket@aol.com" Jdowbasket@aol.com Judy Dow
Subject: Intervale

Hello everyone,
As you know, I have been working very hard for the last five years to protect the Intervale land, the Winooski River and the descendents of Moccasin Village living at the Mouth of the Winooski River. The destruction that occurs on Intervale land is unbelievable. The true story cannot get out. The "good stewards of the land" have made it almost impossible—Intervale Center's Public Relations program and funds provided by the Chittenden Solid Waste District (public funds) and wealthy board members are too large to compete with. I have given updates of the destruction at many Vermont Commission on Native American Affairs meetings and our website has kept you posted with the press releases. The Commission has supported me 100%. The Commission and many others have been appalled by the destruction, lies and deception the people from the Intervale Center have exhibited.
The battle for land survival is quite intense right now. The Attorney General's office, Agency of Natural Resources, Department of Historic Preservation, Chittenden Solid Waste District, Intervale Compost Products and many, many lawyers have been regularly meeting to figure out how they can keep the ICP there for two more years without doing any monumental damage to sites. There have been 14 archeological reports done on the Intervale and human remains have been found there, which were not allowed to be reburied in the Intervale; instead, they were brought to Missisquoi for reburial.
ICP has currently dug five ponds to collect over 1,000,000 gallons of leachate. This leachate is runoff from the tens of thousands of tons of manure and food waste collected each day. These ponds were dug without any permits and one was dug on the archeological site where the human remains were found. According to Jane Lendway, State Historical Preservation Officer, less than 1% of this land has been studied. All reports state that this is the most highly sensitive land in the state. Yet digging continues daily. In addition, the 13-plus acres of compost and the five leachate collection ponds are located in a floodway. FEMA and the State of Vermont clearly state that there is to be no building or digging of any kind in a floodway. About the leachate: it is high in arsenic, lead, phosphorus and E.Coli bacteria. The latest ICP test results show Coliform at levels of 14,000,000 mpn/100mls and E.Coli levels at 2,400,000 mpn/100mls. Now, just imagine that overflowing during a flood into the Winooski River some 500 feet away and down to Lake Champlain, a mere five miles downstream.
Although I received a letter from Kit Perkins Intervale Center's previous executive director, stating that she "would not allow any digging past the depth of a plow's disturbance,” digging to place irrigation pipes underground and building stockade fences and hoop houses with hundreds of three-foot holes is a regular occurrence. I monitor
and photograph grading, excavating and digging on a regular bases, some on known archeological sites and many on sensitive land that has yet to be studied.
The struggle to save our burial sites and prevent environmental destruction is not enough.
We now we have to compete with lateral oppression to save the land. The Intervale Center puts out an annual newsletter called “Explorer.” This week, Explorer 2008 came out and inside the cover was a letter from April St. Francis. I have copied her letter here for you to read:
Working together to protect ancient Abenaki heritage sites
The Intervale Center lands contain the best collection of precontact Native American archeological sites known within Vermont. Native peoples have lived within the Winooski Intervale for at least the last 4,000 years and perhaps longer, first in small seasonal encampments and later in semi-sedentary villages as cultivated foods became a more reliable and significant food source.
The Intervale produced a vast amount of animal, plant and riverine resources that would have attracted ancient native groups to this area to collect seasonally available foods and other needed resources. As agriculture developed these people were able to harvest corn, beans, squash and other cultigens for winter storage in deep pits dug into the floors of their lodges for easy access. To this day, Abenaki families continue to live in the area surrounding the Intervale and continue to collect selected plants for food and medicinal purposes and to fish the river.
The Abenaki Nation of Missisquoi has been aware of and has had many dealings with archeological site issues in this area since the 1970’s before the Intervale Center was created. The Abenakis’ intent is to work with the Intervale’s staff and board to protect these sites and to live in harmony with our neighbors. We feel we can work through any issue by sitting at the table with one another and discussing the concerns we all have. Developing a strong and long-lasting collaboration between us will go a long way towards solving any challenges that may arise in the future.
Chief April St. Francis Merrill
Abenaki Nation of Missisquoi
St. Francis/Sokoki Band

April St. Francis Merrill has been trying to allow the Intervale Compost Products to continue operation in its present location. April has denied my heritage in public newspapers. She has met with ICP and CSWD people to state that I am not Abenaki and that this is her homeland. I know April is very knowledgeable but this is not her homeland. She does not know this land, she doesn't know the corn grinding stone, the sacred caves, the plants, the animals, and the fish, where the ancient chestnut and butternut fields are or where Cat's Island or other burial sites are located. I don’t think she knows how destructive her actions are. I don’t think she cares. She doesn't know the test results show the leachate is high in contaminants and that ICP wants to spread it on the fields adjacent to the river. She doesn't know that the Intervale operation is the biggest story of “greenwashing” Vermont has ever seen. She doesn't know all this because this is not her homeland. I have lived here for 54 years. I'm tired of April’s trying to prove who she is by making accusations against everyone else. Heritage doesn't matter—the land is crying for help. The ancestors are crying for help. But April doesn't know this either.
Judy Dow
Page [1.]
Why Can't All People of Abenaki Heritage be Recognized?
One hundred years ago, people of Abenaki hertiage had to hide their cultural identity in order to fit into the primarily European white culture that had invaded North America. My husband's Abenaki people had to lie on their children's birth records and on their own marriage certificates and families felt the need to even lie death certificates in order to protect their families, and again to "fit in" with the main stream culture. The Abenaki people did not live in large organized groups, bands or tribes as this would call more attention to them. In order to survive they formed small based tight knit bands.
Now fast forward to the year 2008. My husband is of Abenaki heritage and is proud of it. Neither he nor his Abenaki relatives have to hide their heritage but they now face a more hideous problem. It is now Abenaki against Abenaki. The Western Abenaki Elders of the Swanton based St. Francis/Sokoki band refuse to recognize other people of Abenaki heritage. Three years ago, their Chief April Merrill repeatedly told use that while the Abenaki were in the process of attempting to obtain Federal Government Recognition, that their enrollment was "on hold" and would remain so until the lengthy process was completed and until recognition was hopefully obtained.
Even after the Abenaki received state recognition, they failed to attain the federal recognition that they felt was so important. Chief Merrill was never able to fully explain why enrollment was frozen during the federal process. After speaking with many other Abenaki people it became apparent that the freezing of membership did not help to attain federal recognition. In fact, it would make more sense that there would be strenght in numbers, the larger the Abenaki nation the more influential and stronger it would become.
After Ms. Merrill kept membership at a standstill for two years because her band was so busy attempting to submit materials to revert the federal government's decision that that the Abenaki were not recognized, I decided to write to the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) because I wanted to further understand its decision to deny recognition of the Abenaki. I recieved a several hundred page document from the BIA which included copies of materials that the St. Francis/Sokoki submitted as well as the BIA's lengthy response and decision. One vital piece of information which Ms. Merrill does not want the public to know is that the BIA is never going to give the Abenaki federal recognition, for a number of reasons but most importantly that they failed to prove that the Abenaki have lived continually in the United States. It is well documented that the Abenaki periodically moved between the USA and southern Quebec in an effort to avert sickness and the anglo europeans.
If Chief Merrill is going to freeze enrollment for membership until federal recognition is received she can continue to keep many true Abenaki people in limbo making it impossible for them to be recognized as members of the Abenaki Nation. There is something wrong with this lack of process and even more
Pag [2.]
wrong is to give such power to an individual who'se only desire is to further the interests of the St. Francis/Sokoki band. Her actions are reminicent of a former St. Francis band chief - Homer St. Francis, wanting to do as the chief pleases and thinking that it is the only way, much like a spoiled child.
This has become apparent after I read a recent article in the Burlington Free Press regarding Abenaki Bands voicing opinions on recognition and related issues. Merrill is pushing for the Swanton band and the Koasek Band of Newbury to receive recognition. It was not long ago that the former Koasek Band Chief Nancy Millette [Doucet] and her band was not viewed as being recognizable. The Koasek even invited my husband and his family to apply for membership in her Band and that in order to do so any affiliation or application to join any other band would need to be formally retracted. Now all of a sudden the Koasek and St. Francis/Sokoki have joined forces. Will this benefit all Abenaki peoples or just these bands that have the loudest voices? Why should other bands have to go through any different scrutiny or recognition processes? Why aren't Merrill and Millette fighting to support all Abenaki peoples? What about the Nulhegan Band of the Northeast Kingdom; or the Coos Cowasuck Band; or the Mazipskwik Band; or the Obomsawin Band; or the Alnobak Nebesakiak Band; or the MANY Abenaki individuals that are either formed in small family based bands or for whatever reason are not connected to a recognized band? Don't all documented Abenaki people have the same rights? Is this like a 'caste system' with the St. Francis/Sokoki and Koasek at the top of the pyramid with the other Abenaki people trickling down the pyramid? I thought the days of the Abenaki being second class citizens were over but now it is a few bands that want the prestige, power and control over the rest of us. No one Abenaki band is better or should be more powerful than the others. The Abenaki NATION; all of its bands, clans and documented individuals must join together because that is where there will be strength not only for its present day peoples but also for its future generations.
In the Burlington Free Press article, Ms. Merrill states that "she doesn't trust the commission to decide which bands should be recognized. She also refuses to be represented on the Vermont Commission on Native American Affairs because members were not required to prove their heritage. Merrill cannot have it all her own way. She doesn't trust this commission yet the commission was formed shortly after the Abenaki received state recognition in an effort to aide them. She doesn't want to be represented on the commission but she wants to complain about it. Rather than work to improve the commission and to give another viewpoint she would rather question the members heritage. Why should all members of the commission have to be Abenaki? The heritage of members of other commissions is not questioned. The important factor is that members must be willing to fight for the causes of the group while being fair and equitable to all individuals and groups being represented.
Page [3.]
Ms. Merrill questions the heritage of the commission members. She should focus her energies on reviewing membership applications and in acknowledging Abenaki people who are proud of their heritage. I still do not understand why she is not interested in increasing the membership of her bands and the Abenaki Nation. Why doesn't she want to lead a larger membership? Perhaps the commission needs to investigate this. Is she afraid that her current band is going to lose out on something (?) or that the pie will have to be cut up smaller if there are more members? Just what is she attempting to hide? Instead of the commission focusing on recognizing bands so that they can market their work they should investigate what is tearing the Abenaki nation apart.
"Ginney" from Johnson, Vermont wrote the above 3 page letter
Fwd: Fw: New VT Bill ... H.569
Date: Tuesday, February 09, 2010 9:27 AM
From: ETPVT@aol.com [Ralph Skinner Swett]
To: cowboy@pshift.com

From: wobanaki@kingcon.com [Howard F. Knight Jr.]
To: etpvt@aol.com [Ralph Skinner Swett]
Sent: 2/8/2010 1:58 PM
Subject: Fw: New VT Bill ... H. 569
Kwai Kwai Ralph,
Below is the House Version of the House of Rep's Abenaki Recognition Bill, # 569 as promised FYI [For Your Information]. The best to do is to kill this bill and let it join the Senate verion in the File 13 basket [garbage]. Hopefully! Let them know that this is unacceptable without ALL of the groups that are headquartered and/or incorporated here in Vermont. Also, how can a group like the Nulhegan Band be a historical group WHEN IT IS a breakaway group from the Clan of the Hawk in 2004-2005? There is now way that it computes logically or otherwise.
For Fred Wiseman to claim it is so, he is totally wrong. The same goes for the El Nu as they have only one person who has any Native Lineage that I am aware of, and that is a proven fact by a genealogist. Also, Nancy Millette Doucet, a self-proclaimed Chief of 73 of her family members (all are non-native per the genealogist), herself, has NO NATIVE lineage, and a DNA test (she had one last fall and now claims that it proves she is native) but the truth be known, a DNA test, WITHOUT the Genealogical proof to back up the DNA test, IT IS WORTHLESS. That simple and no arguments becauset hat is the gospel truth.
Respectfully Yours,
P.S. Be Well, Stay Well, and Treat Yourself Well.

---Original Message---
From: Brian Chenevert
To: [Redacted by someone, Howard Knight?]
Sent: Monday, February 08, 2010 11:17 AM
Subject: New VT Bill ... H.569
I am somewhat confused by this bill

Here one can review that Howard Franklin Knight, Jr. was directly communicating with his appointee's/ created "Chief's" Ralph Skinner Swett of the Clan of the Hawk, Inc. and also Brian Chenevert of the Koasek Traditional Band of the Koas, Inc.
Wednesday, March 03, 2010
Fred Wiseman & Eugene St. Onge
From: Luke Willard firstnationslw@yahoo.com
Subject: Fred Wiseman & Eugene St. Onge
To: Fred Wiseman wisem@vtlink.net, ellenblood169@comcast.net
Fred M. Wiseman Ph.D,
I'd like to introduce you to Eugene St. Onge. he is a Nulhegan Abenaki and a Ceremonial Leader in our community. You mentioned a short time ago that each band should appoint a tribal official to conduct ceremony, etc. Eugene is an intellectual and very well spoken. I have relied upon him, recently, for counsel. I'd appreciate it if you'll keep him informed of events that may require or benefit from an Abenaki/Alliance presence whether it be ceremonial, spiritual, etc ... you know what I mean. Eugene will be there and will become a familiar face and recognized ceremonial leader. Eugene has earned my respect and trust.

Eugene St. Onge,
I'd like to introduce you to Professor Fred Wiseman. Fred is the Vermont Indigenous Alliance Coordinator. As you know the Alliance consists of the Nulhegan, Missisquoi, Koasek and Elnu Abenaki tribes. Fred is an historian, author, and scholar. He has the best understanding of the Vermont Abenaki that I've come across. He has become a trusted consult and a dear friend. He is an intellectual warrior and a wise man. I trust his counsel. Fred is leading the official fight for recognition on behalf of myself and the other chiefs.

On a personal note ... please try to include Grandfather Philip Thibault as much as you can and when it is convenient to him (and while we still have him). He is a Nulhegan and holds a special place in my heart and was close to Grandmother Nancy.
Chief Luke Willard
Abenaki Nation
Nulhegan - Memphremagog
Vermont Indigenous Alliance
(802) 766-4725 Home
(802) 751-5043 Mobile
RE: Fred Wiseman & Eugene St. Onge
From: Fred Wiseman wiseman@vtlink.net
Thursday, March 04, 2010 2:57 PM
Subject: Re: Fred Wiseman & Eugene St. Onge
To: 'Luke Willard' firstnationslw@yahoo.com, ellenblood169@comcast.net

Hello Eugene St. Onge,
Good to have someone from Nulhegan in the ceremonial role -- I value Luke's counsel and will be sure to include you in all that we plan and do.

Luke Willard,
Wow, I remember Phil Thibault way back when he worked for the railroad, then met him again at a ceremony in St. Albans in 1989. Lot of water of the dam since then. I will think of him, if you could give me a contact phone or email for him.

Fred M. Wiseman Ph.D
Meeting of Nulhegan Council March 13, 2010
Due to the absence of Luke Willard the meeting was called to order at 2:10 PM by Billie Largy. The following people were in attendence:
Forrest and Kathy Cheney
Linda Caron
Allen Bluto
Billy Largy
Linda Smith
Frank Cheney
Mary Poulin
Fran Bernier
Anna Bernier
Richard Green
Nancy Green
Phil Thibault
Gail Gerard
Nickie St. Onge
Eugene St. Onge
Ellen Blood

The purpose of the meeting was to elect officers to vacant positions on the Council and elect a Sub Chief. A motion to elect Eugene St. Onge to the Sub Chief position was made by Billie Largy and seconded by Frank Cheney. All in favor. Billie conducted the oath of office.
The motion was made to elect someone to the Tribal Council. Gail Gerard nominated Dana Cheney and Maria Cheney seconded the motion. All in favor.
Dana Cheney mentioned that he would like to see us all go to the state house to support the recognition bill. There was a little discussion regarding the bill. Dana would like to see us keep growing in numbers.

The meeting was adjourned at 2:30 PM
Respectfully Submitted by Ellen Blood, (Acting Secretary)

Next meeting will be Sunday, March 21, 2010 at Grandfather Philip Thibault's house at 12:00 PM Noon.
We will celebrate the Solstice - Bring Pot Luck
Meetings, Cards, and more...
From: Luke Willard firstnationslw@yahoo.com
Sunday, July 25, 2010 12:49 AM
To: Grandfather Phil gfatherphil@hotmail.com, Eugene St. Onge ellenblood169@comcast.net, Billie Largy spiritwolf_1@comcast.net
Cc: Ed Davis vtbeermug@yahoo.com, Richard Green greengo@fairpoint.net, Dana Cheney fdcheney@myfairpoint.net

Kwai Kwai Grandfather Philip Thibault, Billie Largy, and Eugene St. Onge,
I have purchased the high quality Tribal ID cards that I designed along with the laminating and other materials necessary to issue the ID's. They will be in my possession no later than August 16th, 2010. If I understood Eugene St. Onge correctly, he has made some cards to give to certain members. I understand that many people have waited a long time for ID's. However, a card that does not brandish the seal and the chief's signature is not valid.
ID cards have been a thorn in my side for many years now. Those cards seem to be more important to people than anything else. Well... now they shall have them.
Pan-Indian rituals do not make people Abenaki. I am working with the Alliance chiefs and coordinators to help bring back and relearn the real Abenaki customs and traditions. I have offered land that the tribe may utilize to build a longhouse, hold events, and a community garden. I challenged our tribal council to focus on self sustainability and community. I believe there it is MORE important for us to encourage our own to learn our true culture than it is to present Pan-Indian culture to outsiders who believe they are learning about Abenakis. How can we promote cultural awareness in the surrounding communities if we do not truly understand our own culture?
I'm going to arrange a tribal council meeting. I hope you both will support these goals and encourage the elders and families to encourage their own to step up to the plate for the sake of our future. The ONLY item on my agenda as chief of the Abenakis of the Nulhegan and Memphremagog watersheds is to ensure that its continuity is unbreakable and protected from harm. I promisted this to Grandmother Nancy (nee: Cote) Rolls and I hope you both will help me to honor that.
Communication is key. My phone number is below, I check my email frequently, and I love company.
My Best,
Luke Andrew Willard

Chief Luke Willard
Abenaki Nation
Nulhegan - Memphremagog
(802) 754-2216 Home
August 19, 2010
Luke Willard
Nulhegan Band

Dear Luke,
Eugene St. Onge would like to hereby state that he no longer wishes to hold the office of Sub Chief to which he was elected. He no longer feels that the Nulhegan Band benefits from his participation and has a conflict of interest with the First Nations Bear Clan which is first in his heart.
The Bear Clan has discussed in depth the participation in the Nulhegan Band and all of the people are in agreement that our participation in the Band would be difficult as we are on different paths. Conformity is not a strength the Bear Clan possesses.
We hope that Creator leads us all to the place we all need to be in unity, peace and love.
Eugene (Big Wolf) St. Onge
First Nation Bear Clan

Francis E. Cheney
Donna Cheney
Marie Cheney
Philip Thibault
Billie Largy
Kathy Cheney
Gail Girard
Mary E. Girard (Baraw)
Forrest Cheney

Luke Willard
158 Whiting Lane
Brownington, VT 05860

Dear Luke,
Attached you will find two letters and several signed names which have been notarized. We hope that you will honor this request and return all documents associated with these names and remove them from your rolls.
You can gather all the information and meet Eugene and Dana in Newport at a designated spot and they will return the information to their rightful owner. Please return all records by August 31st, 2010.
The names on the signed letter are as follows:

Francis E. Cheney
Donna Cheney
Marie Cheney
Philip Thibault
Billie Largy
Nicki St. Onge
Kathy Cheney
Linda Smith
Ellen Blood
Gail Gerard
Mary Gerard - Baraw
Forrest Cheney

Billie Largy's card is enclosed and her son Allen will be forwarding his card. If you need any assistence or have any questions please feel free to email Eugene St. Onge or call.

Thank you,
Eugene Big Wolf St. Onge
The People of the First Nations Bear Clan
August 25, 2010 Return Reciept
Article Addressed to:
Luke Willard
158 Whiting Lane
Brownington, VT 05860

REMEMBER the email the 'late' Nancy-Lee (nee: Cote) Rolls sent to Philip Thibault dated July 01, 2006 at 1:29 PM?
Below is the transcription....

[Handwritten: "For Grey Wolf (John K. Lawyer) and Mike (Delaney)]

From: Nan Lee okemes@adelphia.net
Sent: Saturday, July 1, 2006 1:29 PM
To: "Phillip Thibault" gfatherphil@hotmail.com
Subject: Re: agreement

Grandfather, like I said praying will make things clearer... It has been said to me that Connie Brow is the one that closed the Mazipskwik to begin with, and at this point is for this change. Does she have anthing more to do wit hthe Mazipskwik? If she is still in cahoots with April [nee: St. Francis - Rushlow - Merrill] that means she is in favor of chiefs', sub-chiefs' etc. This is not and will never happen with the Nulhegan Band. [Remember these words from Nancy-Lee Cote - Rolls, because she contradicts herself later in her communications!]

And grandfather, Luke Willard is being watched closely, by everyone from the first group [Clan of the Hawk, Inc.'d or North American People of the Dawn, Inc'd] as well as this group now. He has no idea of this and is worried about his genealogy at this point in time. ...

[I'd be worried too, if I'd made up some concocted confabulation that I was related allegedly to the Otondossone/Watso families of Odanak, Quebec, Canada] LINK: http://www.nedoba.org/gene_fake.html#swassin

I just hope that things will be settled soon, one way or the another.
Love to you and yours,
Nanny [Nancy-Lee nee: Cote - Rolls]

So what it appears to be, is that the 'late' (now deceased) Nancy Cote-Rolls was NOT IN FAVOR of "Chief's" nor "Sub-Chief's" at all. Regardless in several of her communications at a later time's she seems to contradict her statements. Was she making up the rules and regulations as she went along with these other people? Yet upon her death, Luke Andrew Willard (who she had "issues" with in 2004 ... very shortly after the "Nuhegan-Coosuk" Incorporation was sanctioned by the State of VT Secretary's Office in Montpelier, Vermont) assumed the position of "Chief" of this incorporation and began calling himself a "War Chief".

Some Abenakis individually have served in War's since the Revolutionary War, such as the War of 1812, the Civil War, World War 1, and World War 2, the Korean War (I think), the Vietnam War, and subsequent "Conflicts" and War's since. But not as a majority of Abenaki People against another people or Nation. So WHY are these people in these incorporation's, calling themselves "War Chief's"? Is it that merely "incorporation's" Presidents who call themselves "Chief's" and so on, simply competing and slanderously fighting one another, that they need these positions they call "War Chief's"?

IF Luke Andrew Willard was honestly respectful and honorable to Nancy (Cote) Rolls, then WHY is the man, creating a Sub-Chief and calling himself a "Chief" after her death, if he HONORS her memory and position? I think she knew he was a hot-headed egotisitically hungry younger man, who lusted after POWER and CONTROL in his inflated EGO and his false sense of Self-Importance within the incorporation. He preyed on her at the very last, assuming a position within the incorporation, that in all liklihood if her health was sustained, she would not have approved of Luke Willard as Chief of anything!

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