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Thursday, May 7, 2015

An Evaluation of the Phillips Family of Vermont, in particular Antwine Philips and his wife Catherine Émery dit Codèrre - Part 5



In the Vermont Eugenics Survey documentation, there is a SUMMARY of the Phillips Family of Vermont.

Usually, I have found that reading and reviewing this material, many times, one will read something therein, and it isn't particular seemingly noticeable or important, and it can been seen a dozen times or a hundred times, but surprisingly, on the 13th time or the one hundred-and-one time, all of sudden, it becomes VERY APPARENTLY IMPORTANT. And this is just such a situation. I highlighted in yellow the portion that is extremely important, though it doesn't seem that way, on the surface of it.

The PHILLIPS FAMILY told of a member of their tribe, living to be 111 years old.

As I stated before, recently, tribe: in the context of this particular page of the VT Eugenic's papers, and usage of the word therein meant 'a collection of families descending from one ancestor'. 

The usage of the word 'tribe' did not mean in the context of being 'Native American Band or Tribe'. 

There are many different people groups and tribes across the continent of Africa for example... and in many other ehtnic populations such Ireland or Scotland. Of course, those 'tribes' there, were and are called Clans.

Doing genealogical research within Franklin County, Vermont on 'Black' persons and or families, I found this: 


Peter PHELPS, age 98 in the St. Albans History Book, along with Jeffrey Brace's kith and kin, Woodbeck, and even Henry Prince, and Wooster McDuffy, all known 'Black' persons, living in St. Albans, Franklin County, Vermont?

Indeed, the implied White "Wonder Bread" Colonizer State of Vermont, wasn't so 'White" after all. I had read about Mr. and Mrs. Prince and the African-American enclaves within the State, but never really detected such a reality in Franklin County, Vermont, least of all in St. Albans! 

This research was going to get interesting, really fast.

Phelps = Philips? Were the two one and the same? 




1830
1830 Federal Population Census – St. Albans, Franklin County, VT
James Mc Duffu
Household consisted of only Free Colored Persons:
Males under 10 yrs. of age: 2
Male between 24 yrs. and 35 yrs. of age: 1
Female between 24 and 35 yrs. of age: 1

Peter Phelps
Household consisted of only Free Colored Persons:
Male under 10 yrs. of age: 1
Males between 10 yrs. and 24 yrs. of age: 2
Male between 24 yrs. and 35 yrs. of age: 1 [Peter Phelps]
Females under age 10 yrs. of age: 3
Female between 10 yrs. and 24 yrs of age: 1
Female between 24 and 35 yrs. of age: 1 [Peter Phelps spouse … Nancy Mach?]
Female between 36 yrs and 53 yrs. of age: 1 [possible mother]

Was Antwine Philips (and perhaps his wife Catherine) in Peter Phelps's household?

Cato Pollison
Household consisted of only Free Colored Persons:
Male between 36 yrs. and 54 yrs. of age: 1
Male between 55 yrs. and 99 yrs. of age: 1
Females between 36 yrs. and 54 yrs. of age: 2
Female between 55 yrs. and 99 yrs. of age: 1

June 22, 1830
The St. Messenger Newspaper, Page 03
Died in this town Cato Pollison, a coloured man, age 48 yrs. in St. Albans, VT.

July 01, 1830
The American Repertory (St. Albans, VT) Vol. IX, Issue 35 Page 03
Mortuary Notice


Cato Pollison, died in St. Albans, a colored man, and he is not to be confused with Cato Bond, another colored man of Sheldon, Franklin County, Vermont. 

(I will be sharing the data on Cato Bond ... shortly).

September 09, 1850
1850 Federal Population Census – St. Albans, Franklin County, VT



152 - 154 Household:
James McDurphy – Black Age: 50 Laborer Born: Vermont
Mary Ann McDurphy – Black Age: 30 Born: New York
Frederick McDurphy – Black Age: 15 Born: Vermont
Betsey McDurphy – Black Age: 14 Born: Vermont
Theodore Brace – Black Age: 29 Laborer Born: Vermont
Sarah Prince – Black Age: 29 Born: Vermont
Alanson Brace – Black Age: 11 Born: Vermont
Francis Brace – Black Age: 08 Born: Vermont
Sylvester Brace – Black Age: 06 Born: Vermont
Douglas Brace – Black Age: 04 Born Vermont
Peter Brace – Black Age: 02 Born Vermont
Peter Phelps – Black Age: 70 Born ca. 1780 Vermont
Amy Pollison – Black Age: 75 Born New York [Cato Bond/Pollison’s spouse?]
James Gould – Black Age: 18 Born Vermont
154 – 156 Household:
Sylvester Day – Black Age: 40 Laborer Born Canada
Ama Day – Black Age: 28 Born: Vermont
Alanson Day – Black Age: 17 Born Vermont
Diantha Holmes – Black Age: 70 Born New York

Household 289-291:
George Prince – 30 yrs. old male black Laborer   Born in Vt. Cannot read nor write.
Caroline Billings – 25 yrs. female black       Born in Vt. Cannot read nor write.
Daniel Prince – 08 yrs male black                 Born in Vt. Attended School.
Rose Anne Prince – 06 yrs. female black      Born in Vt.
Isaac Prince – 02 yrs. male black                  Born in Vt.
Household 290-292:
Henry Prince – 60 yrs. male black Laborer   Born in Ct.
Hannah Barlow – 40 female black                 Born in Vt.
Charles Prince – 10 yrs. male black               Born in Vt.
Rebecca Prince – 08 yrs. female black           Born in Vt.
Parthenia Prince – 06 yrs. female black          Born in Vt.
Elizabeth Prince – 04 yrs. female black          Born in Vt.
Florence Prince – 01 yrs. female black           Born in Vt.
Household 291-293:
Josiah Baldwin – 50 yrs. male black               Born in Vt.
Emily Baldwin – 21 yrs. female black            Born in Vt.
Peggy Phelps – 60 yrs. female black              Born in Vt. 1790 [NOT Phelps but Mosley]
Mary Ann Phelps – 10 yrs. Female black     Born in Vt. 1840 [Peggy Phelps step-daughter Mary Ann Bolden / Baldwin from Josiah Bolden's first wife]

September 17, 1850
1850 Federal Population Census – St. Albans, Franklin County, VT

Line 11 – Household 426 – 431:
William Phelps Age 31 yrs. Born: Abt. 1819 VT (Blk) Black Occupation: Laborer
Rosanna [Prince] Age: 26 yrs. Born: Abt. 1824 VT (Blk) Black
Lewis Phelps Age: 12 yrs. (Blk) Black
Cynthia Phelps Age: 17 yrs. (Blk) Black
William Phelps Age: 04 yrs. (Blk) Black
Russell Phelps Age: 03 yrs. (Blk) Black
Orange Phelps Age: 2 months (Blk) Black


1851
Canadian Lower Canada Census – Ste. Armand, Missisquoi County, Quebec, Canada


1851
Canadian Lower Canada Census – Ste. Armand, Missisquoi County, Quebec, Canada

No. 14: Philip Luke  Farmer   
No. 15: Mary Luke
No. 16: Lucretia Luke
No. 17: Philip C. Luke
No. 18: Hannah Krans
No. 19: Nelson Luke
No. 20: Mary Luke
No. 21: Jacob Glenn Luke 
No. 22: Jacob Veeder Luke
No. 23: Homer Luke
No. 24: Jacob Luke
No. 25: John Luke
No. 26: Samuel Luke
No. 27: William Luke
No. 28: Edith Luke
.......

No. 36: William Phelps    Canada B             Episcopal Methodist Age 35 b. 1816
No. 37: Rosanna Prince    United States B Episcopal Methodist Age 29 b. 1823
No. 38: Louis Phelps        United States B Episcopal Methodist Age 13 b. 1839
No. 39: Orange Phelps     United States B Episcopal Methodist Age 02 b. 1850
No. 40: Cynthia Phelps    United States B Episcopal Methodist Age 09 b. 1843
No. 41: William Phelps Jr.  United States B Episcopal Methodist Age 06 b. 1846
No. 42: George Prince   United States B Episcopal Methodist Age 28 b. 1824
No. 43: Caroline Billings   Canada    B       Episcopal Methodist Age 27 b. 1825
No. 44: Daniel Prince     Canada    B       Episcopal Methodist Age 10 b. 1842
No. 45: Rosanna Prince  Canada    B       Episcopal Methodist Age 06 b. 1846
No. 46: Isaac Prince  Canada    B       Episcopal Methodist Age 03 b. 1849
No. 47: Peter Prince   Canada    B       Episcopal Methodist Age 01 b. 1851
No. 48: James Phelps  United States   B Episcopal Methodist Age 22 b. 1830

[All of the above persons listed No. 36 through 48 ONLY ... were identified as being Black/Negro/African descendants]

Was William Phelps & Rosanna Prince visiting Ste. Armand, Quebec, Canada to help on the Luke Farm in 1851? Did his father Peter Phelps know the son's of Philip Luke Sr. who is mentioned in Roland Viau's book Ceux de Nigger Rock? Was the Negro named "Black Jack" in August 1811 actually Peter Phelps, having been down in Sheldon, Vermont in 1807-1808?






1851
Canadian Lower Canada Census – Ste. Armand, Missisquoi County, Quebec, Canada
The William Phelps (with his wife Rose Prince) and children were listed twice in the same Census.

December 06, 1853
Vermont Land Records – Highgate Vermont - Book Volume 16 (1853-1855) Page 416
Highgate, Franklin County, State of Vermont
-Land Deed-Abel Stearns to Chauncy Lyon
… bounded by a line commencing at the corner of Catherine Phillips Land on Sheldon Line in Highgate on the line of said D. Skeels … Katherine Phillips to the place of beginning being fifteen acres more or less

August 08, 1854
Vermont Land Records – Highgate Vermont - Book Volume 16 (1853-1855) Page 601 - 602
Highgate, Franklin County State of Vermont
-Warranty Deed-David Skeels & wife to Alfred Skeels
Lot No. 50, 4th Range boarded by Abel Stearns to the north, Samuel Willard Keyes [S. W. Keyes] and Stephen Sheldon Keyes [S. S. Keyes] (brothers) to the west, and south by Katherine Phillips land.

May 08, 1858
Birth Record Page 306
Charlotte Phelps
Color: Black
Born: Sheldon, Franklin County, Vermont
Father: William Phelps b. St. Albans, Vt.
Father’s Occupation: Day Laborer


Mother: Rose b. St. Albans, Vt.

In conclusion, this particular PHELPS family living in St. Albans, Franklin County, Vermont seems to have 'clustered' around other African 'Black' and or Mulatto persons and or families from about 1830-1850 if not even before that time.

Was William Phelps Sr.' wife Rose/ Rosalie/ Rosanna Prince, related to Henry Prince, Sarah Prince?

May 1859
Joseph Frederic Philippe was born to Antoine Philips and Aurelia Violy

August 23, 1860
Birth of Sarah Aurélia/Amelia Phillips – St. Albans, Franklin County, VT
Father: Antwine Phillips b. Canada [Antoine Phillips Jr.]
Father’s Occupation: Laborer
Mother: Mary b. St. Albans, VT [Aurélia nee: Violy/Vioi (NOT "Dubé")]

November 20, 1860
The Lamoille Newspaper
Elias Chadwick, Justice of Peace. – Accrued on trial of Antwine Phillips (Sr. or Jr.?)
Grand Juror’s fees: $0.90
Officer’s fees: $3.16
Justice’s fees: $1.53
Witness’ fees:  $1.56
Total  $0.34
Allowed at:  $6.81

January 19, 1861
Ste. Georges d' Henryville de Noyan, Iberville County, Quebec, Canada


Joseph Frederic Philippe Baptismal
Son of Antoin Philippe & Aurelie Violy (Violi) of Cambridge, Vermont

October 18, 1861
Birth of Amelia Aurélia Phillips – St. Albans, Franklin County, VT Page 278
Color: White
Father: Antwine Phillips b. Canada [Antoine Phillips Jr.]
Father’s Occupation: Laborer
Mother: Mary b. St. Albans, VT [Aurélia Dubé]

July 06, 1862
Marriage of Peter Trueheart and Philomène Favina Phillips – St. Albans, Franklin County, VT Page 496
Groom: Peter Trueheart               Bride: Philemon Phillips
Age: 21 yrs.                                  Age: 16 yrs.
Residence: Highgate, VT             Residence: Swanton, Franklin County, VT
Born: Abt. 1841 Swanton, VT     Born: Highgate, Franklin County, VT
Occupation: Farmer                      Occupation:
Father: Alexander Trueheart        Father” Antoine Phillips
Mother: Lydia                               Mother: Catherine

I found Peter Phelps in the historical newspapers, having died in mid-November of 1865.

November 17, 1865
The Burlington Free Press Newspaper

Also in the Burlington Free Press Newspaper, it was stated that Peter Phelps, a colored man, 111 years old, who had lived in St. Albans nearly fifty years, died on Friday.

November 17, 1865
The St. Johnsbury – Caledonian Record Newspaper, Page
Franklin County
Peter Phelps, a colored man who lived at St. Albans for nearly half a century [ca. 1815], died on Friday at the age of 111 years.

November 18, 1865
The Salem Observer Newspaper, Salem, Massachusetts, Vol. XLVIII, Issue 46, Page 02


November 21, 1865
The Weekly Union Newspaper, Manchester, New Hampshire, Page 03



December 01, 1865
The Watchman Newspaper, in Montpelier, Vermont, Page 03





In conclusion, the paternal parentage of Antwine Philips (as well as his seemingly mother's first name mentioned in the Sept. 1850 St. Albans Census) strongly indicates that it was Peter PHELPS who was Antwine / Antoine's father. NOT Chief Philip of the 1796 Deed in Coos County, New Hampshire.

It is also not Luie Métallic of the 1796 Deed in Coos County, New Hampshire that was Antoine Phillips sibling brother either. More likely than not, Antwine Philips Sr.' sibling brother seems to be William Phillips born about 1797 and married to Rosanna Prince, also of St. Albans, Vermont.

Why NONE of these educated "Scholars" did not, could not, SEE, or perhaps refused to evaluate the merits of the Nulhegan group's new memberships of the Phillips' family (as we have the evidence that Don Stevens Jr. was actively communicating with his Phillips kith and kin relatives, asking them to join the group 


From: Anonymous
To: douglaslloydbuchholz
Cc: (redacted)
Sent: Sun, Sept. 19, 2010 5:59 pm
Subject: Fw: Tribal Enrollment Form
----- Original Message ----- 
From: Donald Stevens.....donaldstevens@myfairpoint.net
to his following relatives:

<djayburbo>@comcast.net
<vjburbo@comcast.net>
<bjparrott@myfairpoint.net>
<pscs1955@aol.com>
dianelynn@varinweb.com
"LynFinley"lfinley@msin.net
Mary Kinville<wkinkville@myfairpoint.net
”joyce mcentee”jgmcentee@yahoo.com 
“leonard burbo”<fire2347@yahoo.com> 
This email was sent to Burbo’s and Phillips descendants with the above email addresses, etc. Someone before I got this, redacted some names to the emails:
Sent by Donald Stevens: Monday, September 06, 2010 8:48 PM 
Subject: Tribal Enrollment Form 
To all my relatives, 
I will be assuming a leadership role in the Nulhegan Tribe in which our ancestor Antoine Phillips was Chief back in the 1800's. I would like to get you and your family all enrolled before our recognition application goes to the State of Vermont for consideration. If you are interested in becoming a Tribal member, please fill out these forms, sign them, and get them back to me or the Tribe. I at least need you to acknowledge your intentions. 
If you have any questions, do not hesitate to drop me an email. Please follow the instructions so that I can get you on our roles. We need to have all of our Tribal roles up to date by October 1st. Please send this to your any relative related to Grandma Burbo or Antoine Phillips. You can list children that are born to you or adopted. Please do not list step children if they have not been legally adopted as minors. 
We will need a copy of your birth certificate, mother and father's birth certificate. You need the birth certificates that link to Grandma Burbo or the Phillips bloodline. 
I have received the Birth Certificate of Aunt Mary Lemons so I will not need this from Carrie or Bobby. However, I will need yours and your childrens. I also have my mom's so Joyce McEntee (Don Stevens' sister), I will only need yours, the Kids, and grand kids... 

My address is: 
Don Stevens 
156 Bacon Drive 
Shelburne, VT 05482 
Be Well, 
Don Stevens 

I strongly suspect that Peter Phelps, the colored man, who died in Nov. 1865 at the age of 111 years, is the father of Antwine Philips Sr.

That is why Antwine Philips (Antoine Phillips Sr.) named his first born son, Peter Philips ca. 1830's (as Peter Philips could not have been born in 1809 since his genetic contributing mother Catherine was in fact born in 1806), after Peter Phelps, the grandfather ... who was still alive when Peter Philips was born.

Not only did "Peter Phelps" go by that name, but also previously, was Peter Phelps known by the sobriquet / nickname of "Black Jack" ... that seems to have been given to Peter Phelps grandson as well. 

I could go back earlier than 1820 with my research (next post ... ?), but I think this is enough to get the genealogical curious, and the reader(s) who happen across this blog, to understand the reality that the Colonizer State of Vermont Legislature, and it's Governor,  was FLAWED from the beginning to the end of it all, when it was approached by Professor Wiseman Ph.D. and his cohort Donald Warren Stevens, Jr. 


“We deserve the right to our identity,” said Nulhegan "Chief" Donald W. Stevens Jr. said back in February 2011.

But what if that "Abenaki" Identity and genealogical connection never existed in the first place? 

The Vermont Commission on Native American Affairs was empowered by the Legislature to initiate a step-by-step process by which each Abenaki tribe in the state could apply for recognition as Native American.

As defined by the bill, the process would be supervised by the commission and require each tribe to submit documentation, approved by three independent scholars, to validate its claim.  Once that had been accomplished, it would be left to the commission to review the claim and petition the Legislature for recognition on a tribe-by-tribe basis.

But the Vermont Legislature left it up to a faulty and biased VCNAA and the groups appointed hand-picked "scholars" to allegedly validate and approve the Applications of the groups claiming to be "Abenaki" tribes. 

“I’ll never subject myself to this process again,” testified Donald W. Stevens, Jr., who said that he knows Indian blood flows through his veins."

Well it sure as hell isn't Indian blood or DNA from either Louie Metallic of ca. 1796 at all, or to Philip, the Upper Coos Chief of that same time period of the late 1700's either. Y-DNA has proven that MYTH to be just that. Donald W. Stevens and all of the Phillips family originating from 'Antoine Phillips' Sr.'s wife Catherine and or Delia (Benoit) 'Bone' descend from Roch Manintoubeouich / Manitouabeouich & Outchibabhanoukoneau who were both HURON in the mid-1600's (just as Rhonda Lou Besaw - Grimes - True descends from the same HURON couple) and through Delia Benoit, Peter Philips Sr. a.k.a. 'Black Jack' are also descendants of 
“Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) who was also HURON

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine Charon
4. François Louis Chagnon
5. Christophe Chagnon
6. Elisabeth Chagnon
7. Marie Elisabeth Pinel dit Lafrance
8. Sophie Charonnier dit St. Laurent
9. Cordelia Colombe
10. Nazaire St. Francis Sr.
11. Nazaire St. Francis Jr.
12. Homer Walter St. Francis Sr.
13. April Ann (nee: St. Francis) Merrill

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine (nee: Charon) Chagnon dit Larose
4. François Louis Chagnon
5. Christophe Chagnon
5. Jean Chagnon dit Larose
6. John Baptiste Chagnon dit Shonyo
7. Clarrisa Cook (nee: Shonyo) Pero
8. Henry Cook Pero
9. Elwin Merle “Joe” Pero
10. Nathan Elwin Pero

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Pierre Charron
4. Charles Charron Sr.
5. Charles Charron Jr.
6. Marie Françoise (nee: Charron) Chagnon dit Larose
7. John Baptiste Chagnon dit Shonyo
8. Clarrisa Cook (nee: Shonyo) Pero
9. Henry Cook Pero
10. Elwin Merle “Joe” Pero
11. Nathan Elwin Pero

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine (nee: Charon) Chagnon dit Larose
4. Marie Angelique (nee: Chagnon) Benoit dit Livernois
5. Marie Angelique (nee: Benoit dit Livernois) Tétreault dit Ducharme
6. François Tétreault dit Ducharme
7. François Marie Tétreault
8. Ursule (nee: Tétreault) Fontaine
9. Ursule (nee: Fontaine) John Ayöt
10. Rose Mary (nee: Ayöt) Forcier
11. Hélène Rose (nee: Forcier) Dubois
12. Bruce Louis Dubois

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Jean Charron dit Ducharme
4. Marie Therese Ducharme
5. Antoine Charron di Ducharme Jr.
6. Madeleine Cabana (nee: Charron) Chagnon
7. Jean Baptiste Chagnon dit Larose
8. Angelique (nee: Chagnon) Verge
9. Marie Rachel (nee: Verge) Bluto
10. Julius Willis Bluto
11. Richard Willlis Bluto
12. Cheryl Jean (nee: Bluto) Delvantel aka “Nanatasis”

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Jean Charron dit Ducharme
4.  Marie Catherine (Charron dit Ducharme) Chagnon dit Larose
5. Pierre Chagnon dit Larose
6. Joseph Chagnon dit Larose
7. Angelique (nee: Chagnon) Verge
8. Marie Rachel (nee: Verge) Bluto
9. Julius Willis Bluto
10. Richard Willlis Bluto
11. Cheryl Jean (nee: Bluto) Delvantel aka “Nanatasis”

Raymond Lussier’s Line of Ascent #1

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Pierre Charron II
4. Charles Charon Sr.
5. Charles Charon Jr.
6. Angelique Charon
7. Charles Telesphore Lussier
8. Julie Alma Lussier
9. Damase Lussier
10. Jean Baptiste Lussier
11. Raymond F. Lussier

Raymond Lussier’s Line of Ascent #2

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Catherine Charon
4. Angelique Tetrault
5. Angelique Guyon
6. Angelique Renaud dit Blanchard
7. Jean Baptiste Dufresne
8. Julie Dufresne
9. Julie Alma Lussier
10. Damase Lussier
11. Jean Baptiste Lussier
12. Raymond F. Lussier

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine Charon
4. Marie Angelique Chagnon
5. Paul Benoit dit Livernois
6. Joseph Simeon Benoit dit Livernois
7. Peter Mitchell Benoit dit Livernois
8. Delia Benoit dit Livernois dit Benware dit Benway dit Bone
9. Selinda Phillips
10. Rose Lessor
11. Alice Buick
12. Bernice (nee: Wilson) Reynolds
13. Angela (nee: Reynolds) Glass
                                 
1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine Charon
4. Marie Angelique Chagnon
5. Paul Benoit dit Livernois
6. Joseph Simeon Benoit dit Livernois
7. Peter Mitchell Benoit dit Livernois
8. Delia Benoit dit Livernois dit Benware dit Benway dit Bone
9. Joseph Phillips
10.  Christie May Phillips
11. Oscar Harvey Sweetser
12. Wendell Oscar Sweetser

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine Charon
4. Marie Angelique Chagnon
5. Paul Benoit dit Livernois
6. Joseph Simeon Benoit dit Livernois
7. Peter Mitchell Benoit dit Livernois
8. Delia Benoit dit Livernois dit Benware dit Benway dit Bone
9. Joseph Phillips
10. Christie Phillips
11. Isabelle Sargent
12. Seaton Frank Stone
13. Wanda Lynn Stone
14. Sammy Jake “Sambo” Stone

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine Charon
4. Marie Angelique Chagnon
5. Paul Benoit dit Livernois
6. Joseph Simeon Benoit dit Livernois
7. Peter Mitchell Benoit dit Livernois
8. Delia Benoit dit Livernois dit Benware dit Benway dit Bone
9. Napoleon Paul Phillips
10. Paul Anthony Phillips
11. Cora Elizabeth Phillips
12. Paul James Haskins

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine Charon
4. Marie Angelique Chagnon
5. Paul Benoit dit Livernois
6. Joseph Simeon Benoit dit Livernois
7. Peter Mitchell Benoit dit Livernois
8. Delia Benoit dit Livernois dit Benware dit Benway dit Bone
9. Rosa Delphine “Delia” Phillips
10. William Thomas Bissette
11. Delbert Arnold Bissette
12. Carol Bissette
13. Todd C. Sieger

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine Charon
4. Marie Angelique Chagnon
5. Paul Benoit dit Livernois
6. Joseph Simeon Benoit dit Livernois
7. Peter Mitchell Benoit dit Livernois
8. Delia Benoit dit Livernois dit Benware dit Benway dit Bone
9. Rosa Delphine “Delia” Phillips
10. Delia Marie Bissette
11. Margaretia Glorious Burbo
12. Donald Warren Stevens, Jr. 

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine Charon
4. Marie Angelique Chagnon
5. Paul Benoit dit Livernois
6. Joseph Simeon Benoit dit Livernois
7. Peter Mitchell Benoit dit Livernois
8. Delia Benoit dit Livernois dit Benware dit Benway dit Bone
9. Josephine Phillips
10. Marsha Marceline Blake
11. Winifred Ann (nee: Jéróme) Yaratz

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine Charon
4. Marie Angelique Chagnon
5. Paul Benoit dit Livernois
6. Joseph Simeon Benoit dit Livernois
7. Peter Mitchell Benoit dit Livernois
8. Delia Benoit dit Livernois dit Benware dit Benway dit Bone
9. Louis Phillips
10. Henry Lawrence Phillips
11. Jeffery Lawrence Phillips
12. Jason Phillips

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. François Charron dit Ducharme
4. Marie Charlotte Charon dit Ducharme
5. Jean Baptiste Frechet
6. Marie Louise Branconnier
7. Sara LaDurantaye
8. Wilfred David (or Foster) Robert
9. Lillian Dorothy Roberts
10. Donna Louise (nee: Carvalho) “Roberts” 1m. Robert Charlebois  2m. John Scott Moody
11. Chrestien Michel Charlebois
12. Ozalie Charlebois

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine Charon
4. Marie Angelique Chagnon
5. Paul Benoit dit Livernois
6. Joseph Simeon Benoit dit Livernois
7. Peter Mitchell Benoit dit Livernois
8. Joseph Benoit dit Livernois
9. Proper Benoit dit Livernois
10. Elaine Clara Benoit dit Livernois
11. Brian Andrew Chênevert

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine Charon
4. Marie Angelique Chagnon
5. Genvieve Benoit dit Livernois
6. Françoise Amable Tétreault dit Ducharme
7. Louis Beaudry
8. Marie Charlotte Beaudry
9. Adélaide Adèle Fornier dit Prefontaine
10. Austin Lambert dit Lumbra
11. Austin Lumbra
12. Lillian May Lumbra
13. Cedric Henry Brooks
14. Brian Basil Brooks
15. Lisa Tonyo (nee: Brooks) Pouliot

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine Charron dit Ducharme
4. Pierre Chagnon dit Larose
5. Joseph Chagnon dit Larose
6. Gabrielle (nee: Chagnon dit Beloeil) Lalime
7. Christopher Lalime
8. Jean Beoni Lalime
9. Jean Baptiste Eugene Lalime
10. Marie Joseph Arthur Lalime
11. Joseph Granville Leger Lelime
12. Jeanne Antoinette (nee: Lalime) 1m. Lincoln  2m. Kent

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Charlotte (nee: Charon) Vegiard
4. Louis Veigard
5. Antoine Vegiard dit Labonte
6. Ursule (nee: Vegiard dit Labonte) Tarte
7. Charles Tarte
8. Marguerita (nee: Tarte) Lalime
9. Jean Baptiste Eugene Lalime
10. Marie Joseph Arthur Lalime
11. John Granville Leger Lalime
12. Jeanne Antoinette (nee: Lalime) 1m. Lincoln  2m. Kent

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine (nee: Charon) Chagnon dit Larose
4. Marie Angelique Chagnon
5. François Marie Benoit dit Livernois
6. Marie Benoit dit Livernois
7. Marguerite Gipouolou
8. Marie Legros dit St. Pierre
9. Margarita Tarte
10. Jean Baptiste Eugene Lalime
11. Marie Joseph Arthur Lalime
12. Joseph Granville Leger Lalime
13. Jeanne Antoinette (nee: Lalime) 1m. Lincoln  2m. Kent

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine (nee: Charron) Tétreault dit Ducharme
4. Marguerite (nee: Tétreault) Guillet dit Cinq-Mars
5. Marie Louise (nee: Guillet dit Cinqmars dit Lajeunesse) Fontaine dit Bienvenue
6. Louis Fontaine dit Bienvenue
7. Augustin Fontaine dit Bienvenue
8. Augustin Fontaine         
9. Adeline (nee: Fontaine) Pion
10. Anselme Pion
11. Ovila W. Pion
12. Roger Raoul Pion
13. Lucy Rose (nee: Pion) Cannon - Neel

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Pierre Charron Sr.
4. Pierre Charron Jr.
5. Marie Jeanne (nee: Charron) Meunier dit Lapierre
7. Augustin Fontaine dit Bienvenue
8. Augustin Fontaine         
9. Adeline (nee: Fontaine) Pion
10. Anselme Pion
11. Ovila W. Pion
12. Roger Raoul Pion
13. Lucy Rose (nee: Pion) Cannon - Neel

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Pierre Charron Sr.
4. Pierre Charron Jr.
5. Marie Jeanne (nee: Charron) Meunier dit Lapierre
6. Marie Josephte (nee: Meunier dit Lapierre) Chichoine
7. Jean Baptiste Chichoine II.
8. Jean Baptiste Chichoine III.
9. Paul Marcel Chichoine Sr.
10. Paul Marcel Chichoine Jr.
11. Elphege Bernard Chichoine
12. Maureen Chicoine

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Marie Catherine (nee: Charron) Tétreault dit Ducharme
4. Marguerite (nee: Tétreault dit Tetreau) Guillet
5. Marie Louise (nee: Guillet) Fontaine
6. Louis Augustin Fontaine
7. Louis Auguste Fontaine
8. Auguste Fontaine
9. Heloise Elvire (nee: Fontaine) Gaudet
10. Henriette (nee: Gaudet) Bedard
11. Marie Mathilda (nee: Bedard) Poitras
12. Francis Euclide Poitras
13. Francine Anne “Dancing Bluewolf” (nee: Poitras) Jones

1. Chief Atsena Du Plat 8endat Attign8stan and Annengthon HURON
2. “Catherine” 8enta Plat (Pillard) HURON
3. Pierre Charron Sr.
4. Pierre Charron Jr.
5. Jeanne Marie (nee: Charron) Meunier
6. Marie (nee: Meunier dit Lapierre) Fontaine
7. Louis Auguste Fontaine
8. Auguste Fontaine
9. Heloise Elvire (nee: Fontaine) Gaudet
10. Henriette (nee: Gaudet) Bedard
11. Marie Mathilda (nee: Bedard) Poitras
12. Francis Euclide Poitras
13. Francine Anne “Dancing Bluewolf” (nee: Poitras) Jones

February 8, 2011 at 10:29 pm

Dear Friends and Family,
I have underlined some of the most outrageous statements from a news article below, written by Paul Lefebvre with an obvious slant towards the self identified groups in Vermont.
Statements such as “I am Indian at heart” and now comparing selling baskets with the “Indian Brand label” Facebook Chief-Luke Willard, “makes baskets more marketable” is an offensive and ignorant statement to all First Nations people. “I really don’t think there is a full-blood Abenaki out there,” Donald Stevens.

This statement is even more offensive to our Abenaki and Indian brothers and sisters, whose parents and grandparents are living today, who endured the hardships these self-identified groups could not begin to comprehend.

Our government and all First Nations people need to stand up for our aboriginal rights today! State Recognition is a National Aboriginal Rights issue. Non-Indians are attempting to take the back door into States to gain Recognition on flimsy Laws that, if passed, could give State Recognition to any person who states the phrase – “I am Indian at Heart”.
Imposed borders do not separate our families, Vermont’s state imposed borders and Vermont Senator Illuzzi’s denial of our right to represent or testify is reprehensible to the rights of all Indian Nations.

Self Proclaimed Chiefs – Donald Stevens; Facebook Tribe-Luke Willard; Reenactor-Roger “Longtoe” Sheehan; Nancy Millette-Doucet-Lyons-etc; April St. Francis; in VT have been allowed to misrepresent our purpose of opposing Recognition for non-Indians in the State of VT.

The State is allowing non-Indians to testify, BUT NOT allowing the Original Inhabitants – Abenaki People, to go before the Committee to testify on our own behalf.
How, in the last couple years do we now have so many “tribes” in Vermont? This is impossible. These groups are NOT Abenaki. any social club in VT could be granted reocgintion as an Indian given the vague criteria and non-transparent process uncovered in VT.
I was actually outraged to read this article, comparing Indian people to the sales of a Brand, like maple syrup, just plain ignorant.

Denise L. Watso
Abenaki Nation

I think Denise L. Watso pretty much nailed it on the head (at the time), and I think I just proved that the many descendants of Antwine Philips Sr. and Catherine Émery dit Codèrre were not Abenakis at all, contrary to their descendants popular beliefs and story's saying they were and are "Abenakis."

Now that we KNOW her ancestry, and NOW that we know he is an African descendant who was repeatedly identified as Black, Colored, etc (as was his first-born son Peter), how is that these people are State Recognized by the Colonizer State of Vermont, as Abenakis? Is it a form of Ethnocide? Ethnic Erasure by Ethnic Reinvention? 

Or simply a matter of Abenaki Identity Theft on a grand scale?

On the one hand, now-retired Dr. Frederick Matthew Wiseman Ph.D. formerly Chair of the Humanities Dept. at Johnson State College, is partially correct when he accuses the State of Vermont of "Ethnic Erasure" and "Ethnocide" etc. 

Because when the State of Vermont Legislatively "recognized" these 4 groups ... the State  was participating in, and is perpetuating that Ethnocide ... Ethnic Erasure by Ethnic Reinvention ... and Abenaki Identity Theft done by the Professor and his "Alliance" ... against the Abenakis!

The State of Vermont Legislature and all involved (i.e. Vince Illuzzi and Hinda Miller etc) in giving that "recognition" ... crawled into bed with this Professor, perpetuating that "Ethnic Erasure" and "Ethnocide" that the Professor himself perpetuated and continues to do, into the present; slapping each other on the backsides. They believe their lies are the truth ...

Oh and btw, I almost forgot ... 

let's get a little more retrospective ... regarding the very likely place -or- origin or direction ... that Antwine Philips father Peter Phelps a.k.a. "Black Jack" came from ...

March 06 1739
Ellisha (Col.) Sheldon born to Elisha (Capt.) Sheldon and Elizabeth Ely, in Lyme, New London County, Connecticut

December 06, 1753
Stephen (Col.) G. Keyes born to Elisha (Capt.) Sheldon and Elizabeth Ely, in Lyme, New London County, Connecticut

April 26, 1760
Samuel (Maj.) Sheldon born April 26, 1760 in Salisbury, Litchfield County, Connecticut, married to Lucy Louise Willard, and he died September 22, 1807 in Sheldon, Vt.)

May 24, 1762
Elnathan Keyes born to Stephen (Capt.) Elnathan Keyes & Abigail Peabody in Pomfret, Windham County, Connecticut.

His older siblings were:
Ruth Keyes (married Bartholomew Durkee)
Amasa (Col.) Keyes (married Penelope Williams)
Peggy Keyes (she died in 1808 apparently unmarried, in CT)
Abigail Keyes (married Seth Grosvenor)
Stephen (Col.) G. Keyes (married Elizabeth Hyde Sheldon, daughter of Elisha (Col.) Sheldon and Sarah Bellows). He was the father of S.amuel W.illard Keyes & S.tephen S.heldon Keyes
Peabody Keyes
Lucy Keyes (married Sampson Keyes)

February 08, 1762
Elizabeth Hyde Sheldon born to Elisha (Col.) Sheldon and Sarah Bellows, in Salisbury, Litchfield County, Connecticut.

Isaiah Hungerford (son of Samuel Hungerford) was born in New Fairfield, Connecticut on January 23, 1757. He married to Esther Mead who was born on August 11, 1760. He died June 16, 1833 in and she died on December 22, 1836, in Stanbridge, Quebec, Canada.
Stanbridge, Quebec, Canada.
In August 1763, his father had obtained of Governor Benning Wentworth grants of three townships on the northeast of Lake Champlain, chartered by the names of Fairfield, Smithfield and Hungerford. In 1783 he was sent to manage the prudence affairs of the townships, and he and Hubbard Barlow were chosen to lay out the divisions of land to each proprietor. “Among the grantees, was a family by the name of Field. In the course of time this family bought only Mr. Hungerford’s share, but the rights of most of the others, so that nearly the whole town of Hungerford belonged to “Daddy” Field, as the patriarch was called, and Timothy Rogers, of Ferrisburg, who was one of the town’s first surveyors. From them it was purchased by Samuel, George and Elisha Sheldon, and the name of the town was changed from Hungerford to Sheldon, on November 08, 1792.

June 08, 1765
Elisha (Capt.) Sheldon was born, to Elisha (Col.) Sheldon and Sarah Bellows, in Salisbury, Litchfield County, Connecticut.

ca. 1780
Peter Phelps
Born about ca. 1780 [based on that he was 70 yrs. old per 1850 Federal census]

ca. 1780 - 1782
Cato Pollison and his wife Amy born.

ca. 1784
George Sheldon, son of Col. Elisha Sheldon and Sarah Bellows, at the age of 18th years, was sent to the West Indies, having in charge a lot of horses, shipped by his father to Havana. It was six months before George Sheldon returned to Connecticut, after weathering a storm, that nearly wrecked the ship, and in that storm, the horses and much of the cargo were lost.

Northern merchants, like that in Connecticut, and other states of New England, felt it more convenient and economical to purchase from the West Indies and the continental colonies small retail lots of mixed slaves better suited to northern markets.

February 08, 1787
Stephen (Col.) G. Keyes married to Elizabeth Hyde Sheldon, daughter of Elisha (Col.) Sheldon and Sarah Bellows, in Pomfret, Windham County, Connecticut.

March 19 1787
Elnathan Keyes married to Sarah Sheldon, daughter of Elisha (Col.) Sheldon and Sarah Bellows, in Canaan, Litchfield County, Connecticut.

Their children were:
Maria Keyes (married Luther Mitchell)
Elizabeth G. Keyes [married Lyman (M.D. or Dr. Little) [See ca. 1815 … below]
Hitty B. Keyes (she died in Sept. 1811 in Sheldon, Vt.)

After the Revolutionary War, upon resuming what had been the leisurely life of a ‘gentleman farmer’, who probably had never held a plow, Col. Elisha Sheldon found himself a victim of a depreciated currency, bad debts and neglected husbandry, and his affairs soon became seriously involved.
To satisfy demands, some of his personal property after 1784, which included a slave, draft animals and cattle, were attached and sold. His prestige had doubtless suffered from his financial embarrassments; and his aged mother-in-law was deceased [Elisabeth (nee: White) Bellows died 24 August 1786 in Salisbury, CT, mother of Sarah Bellows, wife of Col. Elisha Sheldon]; and his three sons were married and disposed to seek a new environment in which to raise their families.
Given these conditions, the decision was quickly made to dispose of every last item of property in Connecticut, and remove to Vermont, where, in April of 1789, Col. Elisha Sheldon took sick in Burlington, Chittenden County, Vermont. Stephen Keyes whipped, bruised and almost killed Dr. Stevens … because of a high bill for attending to the ailing Col. Sheldon.
And it was while his father was ailing, that in the spring of 1789 it was Samuel Bellows Sheldon a.k.a. Major Samuel Sheldon struck out alone to Hungerford, that later became Sheldon, Franklin County, Vermont.

During the year of 1790, Col. Elisha Sheldon’s other son George Sheldon (#3) and “several Negro servants” came to land Col. Elisha Sheldon owned in northern Vermont near the Quebec border, these black servants, very likely slaves, helped their owners with the harvest. By the late spring Col. Sheldon, his other sons (#1 and #4), and their “Negro servants” had settled in this frontier town, which they named Sheldon.
Coming from Litchfield County, Connecticut, the Sheldon family had experience with slavery, and it seems unlikely that their “Negro servants” were actually Free Black Persons who decided on their own volition to travel to Sheldon, Franklin County, Vermont in ca. 1790.
The Sheldon family held slaves in Connecticut and most likely brought them as slaves to Vermont.
In fact, the first child born in Sheldon, Vermont was colored, birthed by a woman named “Old Mary” who was a servant 
Spring of 1790
George Sheldon, the youngest son of Col. Elisha Sheldon, accompanied by a sturdy old Scotsman by the name of Mac Namara and his wife, together with several Negro servants, came to town (Hungerford, Chittenden County, Vermont, later to become Sheldon, Franklin County, Vermont) as “first settlers;” by yoke of oxen and sled.

After the crops were harvested the Negroes returned to Burlington, Vermont to pass the winter of 1791. George also started for home in Connecticut, returning later to Sheldon, Vermont.


(1791 Burlington, VT Census)
Col. Stephen Keyes 1 Other Free Person
(Hungerford (a.k.a. Sheldon), VT Census)
Col. Elisha Sheldon Sr. 4 Other Free Persons
Elisha Sheldon Jr. 1 Other Free Person
(1791 Highgate, VT Census)
Michael Lampman 1 Other Free Person

Later in the spring, Col. Elisha Sheldon Sr. and his sons: Elisha Sheldon, Jr., Maj. Samuel Sheldon, and his son-in-law, Elnathan Keyes [who had married to Sarah Sheldon, daughter of Col. Elisha Sheldon and his wife Sarah Bellows – Sheldon] together with their families and that of George Sheldon, and their Negro servants, also James Herrick and James Hawley, arrived in Sheldon, VT. While on their way, as near as can be ascertained, at the house of Daniel Stannard, in Georgia, VT, the first town organization took place in 1791. Col. Sheldon, Elisha Sheldon Jr., Mar. Samuel Sheldon, and James Hawley were appointed Selectmen, and James Herrick, constable.

The first birth in the town of Sheldon, Franklin County, Vermont was a colored child; its mother, “Old Mary,” was a servant of Col. Elisha Sheldon who died March 1805, who bought her in Connecticut where she was sold for the commission of some crime.

1791
1791 Federal Population Census – Newbury, Orange County, VT
Worcester McDuffee

November 08, 1792
Samuel, George and Elisha Sheldon purchased from a man named Uriah Field, the latter of whom bought out the Hungerford’s right, title and interest in the Township of Hungerford share (and most of the others as well). The town of Hungerford was changed to Sheldon, Vermont in the County of Franklin, named after the Sheldon family.

1800
1800 Federal Population Census – Sheldon, Franklin County, Vermont
Elnathan Keyes
Household consisted of White and Free Colored Persons:
Free Colored Persons: 8

Elnathan Keyes has eight [8] “servants” (i.e. slaves) in his household in 1800.

1800 Federal Population Census – Hyde Park, Orleans County, VT
Worcester _______
Household consisted of Free Colored Persons:
Free Colored Persons: 4

March 11, 1805
Elisha (Col.) Sheldon died in St. Albans, Franklin County, Vermont while visiting his daughter. He was the son of Capt. Elisha Sheldon and Elizabeth Ely, having been born to them on March 05, 1739 in Lyme, New London County, Connecticut. He married to Sarah Bellows before April 1760, likely in Litchfield County, County.

September 22, 1807
Maj. Samuel Bellows Sheldon died in Sheldon, Franklin County, Vermont. He was born of Col. Elisha Sheldon and Sarah Bellows, in Salisbury, Litchfield County, Connecticut, and he married to Lucy Louise Willard on January 10, 1794 in Petersham, Worcester County, MA, the daughter of Joshua Willard and Lucretia Ward.

September 30, 1807
Elisha (Capt.) Sheldon Jr. died in Sheldon, Franklin County, Vermont, son of Elisha (Col.) Sheldon and Sarah Bellows. He had married to Elizabeth “Betsey” Dutcher.

Their children were:
Charles D. Sheldon
Mary Sheldon
William B. Sheldon

November 12, 1807
Elisha Sheldon Jr. Estate, before Jonathan Janes, Esq., Judge of the Court of Probate for said district, Elizabeth Sheldon & Elnathan Keyes (the latter a Justice of the Peace) of Sheldon in the County of Franklin were appointed Administrators on the Estate of Elisha Sheldon Jr., late of Sheldon in said district to render an account of these administration on or before the first Wednesday of November A. D. 1808 as per bond on file.
James Herrick, Daniel Fisk and John Hoskins were appointed to take an inventory of all the Estate both real and personal whereof Elisha Sheldon Jr. late of Sheldon. Elizabeth Sheldon & Elnathan Keyes, Administrators to the deceased, appraised the same according the present value thereof in money.

In the matter of Elisha Sheldon Jr.’s Estate, Honorable Jonathan Janes, Esq., Judge of Probate appointed Ebenezer Marvin, Noah Janes, and Andrew Durkee of Sheldon as commissioners regarding the Insolvent Estate of the deceased. These three commissioners were appointed the full power to receive ad examine all the claims of the several creditors to the said Estate. The creditors and claimants against the Estate were allowed six months for bringing in and proving their claims. The three appointed commissioners would then decided/allowed which, on each claim, to the end of that distribution, were to be paid, agreeable to the law.

The commissioners it was in their opinion that Land Lot No. 42 in the 2nd Division contained 50 acres, worth $1.50 per acre. And Land Lot No. 11 in the 3rd Division contained 50 acres worth $1.00 per acre, then under encumbrances, and that Land Lot No. 53 in the 4th Division was said to contain 100 acres worth $2.00 dollars per acre, the above described Land Lots were drawn to the original right of John Porter in Fairfield, Vermont, in Smithfield part as appeared by the plan of the town.

December 19, 1807
Elnathan Keyes, of Sheldon the county of Franklin and State of Vermont for and in consideration of one hundred dollars [$100.00 USD] received to my full satisfaction of Cato Bond, of Sheldon, aforesaid, the receipt whereof I do hereby acknowledge by these presents do grant, bargain, alien, convey, confer unto the said Cato Bond, his heirs and assigns, all the right, title and interest, claim and demand which have I have in and to the following piece and parcel of land, lying and situate in Sheldon to the aforesaid (to wit) the one quarter or one fourth of Land Lot No. 45 in the third [3rd] Division, meaning the south half of the north half of said lot, estimated to be fifty [50] acres, being and same more or less.
Witnesses:
Elisha Sheldon
John Weeks

December 19, 1807
Cato Bond, of Sheldon the county of Franklin and State of Vermont for and in consideration of two hundred dollars received to my full satisfaction of John Weeks of Sheldon, I do hereby acknowledge and have granted, bargained, aliened, conveyed and conferred by these presents do grant, bargain, alien, convey, and confirm unto the said John Weeks, his heirs and assigns all the right, title, interest, and claim in which I have in thereto, the following piece or parcel of land lying and situate in Sheldon aforesaid (to wit), the one quarter or one half of the north half of the said lot, estimated to be fifty acres be and the same more or less.
It is the condition of the within deed that the said Cato Bond shall well and truly pay to the within named John Weeks, one certain Note, of the same of ninety-five dollars and fifty-nine cents [$95.59 USD] made payable in eight [8] months from date in full.
Witnesses:
Elisha Sheldon
Elnathan Keyes

February 20, 1808
James Herrick and John Hoskins, appraisers, certified that the 4 acres  and 3 rods of land belonging to the Estate of Elisha Sheldon, Jr., deceased, by deed from Samuel B. Sheldon dated July 02, 1805 and being a part of Land Lot No. 54 in the 2nd Division of the Town of Sheldon was appraised and inventoried by us as belonging to Land Lot No. 55 in the 2nd Division, the same having been deeded by said Samuel B. Sheldon in exchange for a piece of Land Lot No. 55, lying on the south side of the river.

August 15, 1808
Elisha Sheldon, Jr. Probate


NAMES OF CLAIMANTS against the Estate of the deceased, Elisha Sheldon, Jr.

Black Jack $05.00 [See January 21, 1859 Newspaper article]

April 20, 1809
Highgate, Franklin County, Vermont Land Records
Elnathan Keyes of Sheldon, Vermont for the sum of eight hundred dollars, paid by Daniel Benedict of St. Albans, Vermont, deeded land lying in Highgate, Vermont being Land Lot No. 70 in the 3rd Division, containing 100 acres and Land Lot No. 56 in the 4th Division, containing 70 acres. Reference being had to the allotment and plan of said Town of Highgate being the two-fourth lots that John Stone heretofore gave me, Proprietor of said lots, according to the Survey of said Town of Highgate made by John Johnson Esq. – Surveyor, it being the same land John Stone lived on formerly.
Witnesses:
Silas Waterman
Joseph Muzzy

July 22, 1809
Samuel Brigham of Highgate, Vermont, for and in consideration of one hundred dollars to me in hand by Daniel Benedict of St. Albans, deeded to the latter Quit Claimed the whole of Land Lot No. 69 in the Town of Highgate; reference being had to Esq. Johnson Survey of said Highgate, and part of said lot lying on the bow of the Missisquoi River adjoining lands deeded to Daniel Benedict by Elnathan Keyes Es., in the spring of the year 1809, said lot supposed to contain one hundred acres.
Witnesses:
Elnathan Keyes
John Pierce

August 10, 1809
Elnathan Keyes of Sheldon, Vermont for and in consideration of ten dollars paid by Daniel Benedict of St. Albans deeded  a tract or parcel of land lying and being in Highgate, Vermont, the whole of Land Lot No. 169, supposed to contain 100 acres.
Witnesses:
Carter Hickok
Abner Morton

September 05, 1809
Town of Highgate, Vermont Land Records, Pages 160-161-162-163
Daniel Benedict of St. Albans, Vermont, for and in consideration of twenty-five hundred dollars, received to my full satisfaction of William C. Harrington of Burlington, Chittenden County, Vermont, and deeded land described as follows:
Beginning near the southwest corner of a tract or piece of land which I the said Daniel Benedict purchased of Levi Simons of said St. Albans and now reside thereon, said corner is at the southwesterly corner of a piece of said tract, containing five acres of land which I heretofore sold and conveyed to Joseph Muzzey, thence northerly on said Muzzey land, west line to Levi Simon’ land south line to the northeasterly corner of a piece of said tract which I heretofore sold and conveyed to Elnathan Keyes of Sheldon in Franklin County, thence southerly on the easterly line of said Elnathan Keyes tract to the northeasterly corner of a highway laid through said tract last spring, thence continuing southerly on the easterly side of another highway leading easterly, and then easterly on the northerly side of said tract mentioned highway to the first mentioned boundary at said Muzzey; southwesterly corner, containing about 13 acres of land.
The other tract of land is situated and lying in the Town of Highgate in the County of Franklin aforesaid, ad described as follows to wit: Land Lot No. 170, the same being in the 3rd Division, containing 100 acres of land more or less and is situated on both sides of the Missisqoui River, running through said lot.
Also Land Lot No. 56, in the 4th Division in said Highgate, containing by estimation 70 acres of land more or less adjoining said Land Lot No. 170. The two Land Lots are the same that I purchased of the said Elnathan Keyes, as by his deed of conveyance of said two Land Lots to me dated the 20th day of April AD 1809. It appears said Lots are the same that one John Stone formerly lived upon and occupied and said Lots were surveyed by John Johnson of said Burlington who was Surveyor of the Principal Part of all the Lands in said Town of Highgate.
Provided that the following conditions that whereas the said Daniel Benedict is indebted to the said William C. Harrington in the sum of $1940.55, lawful money of the United States, which sum is conveyed into five Promissory Notes of hand be paid by me and or administrators should well and truly pay the five Promissory Notes above described to the said William C. Harrington, his heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, by the same notes, Respectfully become due and payable according to the terms and Effect of said five notes without fraud or delay in such case this deed shall become void, but on failure of the payment of the whole or either of the deed five notes, this deed is to remain in full force and effect. Said five notes are executed by said Daniel Benedict and made payable to said William C. Harrington. In witness whereof I, the said Daniel Benedict, have hereunto set my hand and seal, this fifth day of September one thousand eight hundred and nine.
Witnesses:
P. Lyman
Lewis Johnson

1810
1810 Federal Population Census – Sheldon, Franklin County, Vermont
Cato _________
Household consisted of Free Colored Persons:
Colored Free Persons: 3
Jeremiah Virginia
Household consisted of Free Colored Persons:
Colored Free Persons: 8
Joseph Grapau
Household consisted of Free Colored Persons:
Colored Free Persons: 3
Warstu Virginia [Wooster or Worcester]
Household consisted of Free Colored Persons:
Colored Free Persons: 4
Elnathan Keyes
Household consisted of Free Colored Persons:
Colored Free Persons: 1
Isaac Putnam
Household consisted of Free Colored Persons:
Colored Free Persons: 6
Jacob Putnam
Household consisted of Free Colored Persons:
Colored Free Persons: 5

Lucy Sheldon, of Sheldon, Franklin County, Vermont had one [1] ‘servant’ / colored free person in her household.

1810 Federal Population Census – Swanton, Franklin County, Vermont
Cato Negro
Household consisted of Free Colored Persons:
Colored Free Persons: 7

1810
The line with Highgate and Sheldon was established.

 ca. 1813
Reports of Cases argued and Determined in the Supreme Court of Vermont
Ellithorp vs. Dewing
Actual seisin is sufficient title for a plaintiff in ejectment to recover against a stranger, that is, against a person who has without right trespassed upon the prior occupancy of the plaintiff.
A mortgager in possession can do no act which will affect the title of the mortgage.

This was an action of ejectment for 12 acres of land in the township of Sheldon, Vermont. __________ Ellithorp, the plaintiff, in the spring of the year 1793, purchased of S.amuel B.ellows Sheldon, the north half of Lot. No. 51, laid a 200 acre lot in Sheldon, and went into possession, which possession was continued down. One _________ John [?] Phelps at the same time agreed with S. B. Sheldon for the north half of the same lot, and went into possession, and being so in possession, agreed with the plaintiff [Ellithorp] to divide the lot with him, by a line drawn from east to west through the center of the lot between the north and south lines. The dividing line was accordingly run in the same year, 1793 – so that the plaintiff [Ellithorp] had always claimed and possessed until sometime in the year 1807.
Phelps, after having made some improvements on the North half of the lot, gave up his bargain with S. B. Sheldon, and in the year 1797, Sheldon bargained the same to the defendant [Samuel [?] Dewing], who went into possession, and has since occupied and improved the same, but received no deed of the same until April, 1807, when it having been discovered that said lot number 51 contained more than 200 acres by reason of a mistake in the original survey, it being laid 20 rods wider on the south line than on the north line, so that each half as divided in the year 1793 contained more than one hundred acres; but the south part was the largest. And S. B. Sheldon conveyed to the defendant [Dewing], by metes and bounds, one half of lot no. 51, which included the gore of land in dispute, south of the line formerly run for a division. It did not appear that S. B. Sheldon ever held a title to the lot.
Van Ness and Marvin, for the defendant [Dewing], urged that the defendant might claim the benefit of the Statute of Limitations from the possession of Phelps in the year 1793, and further that as the plaintiff and defendant both derived their title from the same source, they could not question each other’s title; and certainly if the defendant cannot defend on this principle, neither can the plaintiff recover on the same principle; and having shown no title to the land in question, is not entitled to recover against the defendant. …
It further appeared that on July 21, 1807, the plaintiff [Ellithorp] had sold the south half of lot no. 51 as he had claimed it, to Silas Whitney, and had taken a mortgage back to secure the payment to be made on July 01, 1808 – that Silas Whitney went into possession, and having failed of making payment on August 16, 1808, he released the mortgaged premises, and surrendered possession to the plaintiff – that in the summer of 1807, Silas Whitney, while in possession, had by agreement with Dewing, yielded to him the land in dispute, and permitted the fence to be removed accordingly.

March 31, 1813
Colchester Town and Vital Records, Vol. 1, 1797-1824 – Page 374
William Johnson, “a black man” was Warned Out of Colchester, Chittenden County, Vermont

April 29, 1813
Swanton, VT Town and Vital Record, Volume 1, 1790-1823 - Page 05
Jeremiah and Judith Virginia along Sylvia, Stephen, Luther and Calvin Warned Out of Swanton, Franklin County, Vermont.

June 20, 1813
Colchester Town and Vital Records, Vol. 1, 1797-1824 – Page 363
Thomas Peters, “a Black man” was Warned Out of Colchester, Chittenden County, Vermont

September 1813
“Records of the Governor and Council of the State of Vermont"
Colchester, Chittenden County, Vermont
Elias Keyes was voted in as State Officer or as a Councillor. Also mentioned in the record were Ira H. Allen and Cato Pollison.

October 26, 1813
Colchester Town and Vital Records, Vol. 1, 1797-1824 – Page 371
Cato Polison, “a coloured man” aged 48 was Warned Out of Colchester, Chittenden County, Vermont

April 12, 1814
Sarah Emery, Morris Emery, Jeffery Brace, Hanna Brimsie, Daniel Gregory, Hannah Emery, Jack Jackman and family, Cato Pollison and family, and Roxy alias Rosannah Johnson were Warned Out of Swanton, Franklin County, Vermont.

Peter Phelps relocated to St. Albans, Franklin County, VT [based on November 17, 1865 information]


Biographical Cyclopedia and Portrait Gallery with an Historical Sketch of the State of Ohio Volume 2 Western Biographical Publishing Company Publishers, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1884.
Page 514:
On September 22, 1836, Dr. Lyman Little, of Cleveland, Ohio, married to Elizabeth G. Keyes, of one of three daughters of Judge Elnathan Keyes, having removed thither from Hartford, Connecticut to Sheldon, Franklin County, Vermont at an early date, taking with him a number of slaves, whom he freed and settled on farms in his vicinity.”

June 1822 – September 1822
Real & Personal Estate at Sheldon, Franklin County, Vermont per Probate Records.

June 03, 1823
David Skeels Jr. of Highgate, Vermont, in consideration of $10.00 dollars, received of Heman Allen of Burlington, Vermont, deeded to the said Heman Allen by Quit Claim, part of Land Lot No. 51 in the 4th Division, in Highgate, Vermont, which lies between one hundred acre Land Lot No. 122 and 70 acre, Land Lot No. 52, and extending from the south east corner of said Land Lot No. 122 south, in a line parallel with the east line of said Land Lot No. 122, until it intersects the line between the Town of Sheldon and said Town of Highgate, Vermont.

Heman Allen (son of Heber Allen) was a nephew to Ira, Ethan Allen, and Levi Allen. And there is some indication that the Allen's has slaves/servants as well.

Jumping ahead to 1893 regarding Cato Bond's son:

April 16, 1893
The St. Albans Messenger Newspaper


Heman Bond, a colored man, died Saturday last at the Poor House, aged 80. Mr. Bond was born in this town, and has always been a resident. His father [Cato Bond] was brought from Connecticut by Judge Elnathan Keyes, one of the first settlers in town.

I would bet dollars to donuts that Antwine Philips father Peter Phelps a.k.a. Black Jack traveled either from CT with Elnathan Keyes, and Elisha Sheldon ca. 1790 into Hungerford/Sheldon, Franklin County, Vermont ... 

Or ... Perhaps  Peter Phelps a.k.a. Black Jack came from Albany County, New York, from the Estate of Johannes (Loeuck) Luke and Geesie Lagrange through Johannes Van Allen (son-in-law to Johannes and Gessie via the marriage to their daughter Mary) to Philip Luke, then of Sainte Armand, Missisquoi County, Vermont. Philip Luke had land holdings on Land Lot's 12 and 11, just north of Highgate, Franklin County, Vermont. He had two sons, Philip Luke Jr, and Jacob Veeder Luke by his wife Eystie Vanderspaan, before his death in 1822.


Maybe, "Black Jack" wasn't Peter Phelps at all, but a common sobriquet for a Negro or Mulatto man just as the name Cato was? Perhaps "Black Jack" was 'freed' about the same time (December 1807) by Elnathan Keyes, since the Sheldon men had died, and "Black Jack" stayed on the land deeded by Elnathan Keyes to Cato Bond, and by the summer of 1811 "Black Jack" went to Ste. Armand, and that is an explanation as to why Antwine Philips stated in the 1850 Fed. Population Census of Highgate, VT that he was born in Canada.

Was there a 'cluster' of African's who were slaves ... and or subsequently "freed" in the early 1800's whose descendants since 1900 and especially since 1974 now assume they are "Abenakis" because of the 'dark complexion' of their skin on vital records, their dark eyes or the like, etc? And that these families, are either in denial or refusal of their families truthful histories in the Franklin County, VT area, or are simply ignorant of their families histories so they make something up to fill that gap? 

I even found a Sarah St. Francis in St. Albans, VT who was Black



July 13, 1860 
St. Albans, Franklin County, Vermont
Line 11

Was Louis / Lewis Bowman spoken of by Joseph Bruchac and his sister Margaret "Marge" actually African descendants, instead of "Abenakis"? Could that account for the dark complexion, but the forgotten familial history? Perhaps ... 

The Bruchac's have never been transparently open with any valid evidence as to their Abenaki ancestry either, except what they have SAID since ca. 1974. I'd like to see them do a transparent autosomal DNA test and validate they have indication of being related to O'Bomsawin's as Marge claimed while visiting the Netherlands eh! They have implied that Lewis or Louis Bowman was Louis OBomsawin from and of Odanak. Let's see the merits of their claims and assertions. 

1. Lewis/ Louis Bowman
2. Jessie Elmer Bowman
3. Marion Flora Bowman - Bruchac
4. Joseph Bruchac and his sister Margaret
5. Jesse Bowman Bruchac and his brother James Bruchac

Yes, the Bruchac's and even descendants of Bowman's as well, would be genetically capable of getting past the genealogical brick wall, in their Bowman ancestry and gaining some much needed answers to the elusive genealogical questions. Yet, are any of them interesting in seeking those answers, genetically-speaking, aside from their songs, dances, and storytelling ... ? 

FTDNA has an Autosomal DNA called "Family Finder" that can definitely work at 6-7 generations back, and between Joe Bruchac and Lewis/Louis Bowman there's not that much 'distance' between the two of them, not to get some beneficial genetic information. I mean who was Sophia LaFramboise anyway? 

There are Bowman's in Highgate, Franklin County, Vermont ca. early 1800's ...

Lampman's were also Loyalist's from New York, and it is shown in the Census of Vermont that they had slaves as well. Just like Philip Luke and so many others were Loyalists and or slave holders, whose slaves became 'servants' within the households or working on the farms.

Maybe the Abenakis left, leaving the African descendants open to appropriating or taking on the "Abenaki" Identity, in the Abenaki absence of the area, post 1800? 

When the State of Vermont Legislative Politicians and Political Representatives sought after and were approached by the people claiming to be "Abenakis" from and of Vermont ....

When the State of Vermont Governor's James Douglas and subsequently Peter Shumlin ... right along with Vincent Illuzzi and Hinda Miller, etc sought after and were approached by the people claiming to be "Abenakis" from and of Vermont ....

When the varied composition of the Vermont Commission on Native American Affairs sought after and were approached by the people claiming to be "Abenakis" from and of Vermont ....

When the hand-picked "Scholars" who allegedly 'reviewed' the Applications-for-Recognition were sought after and were approached by the people claiming to be "Abenakis" from and of Vermont ....

Did they not investigate the genealogical, historical and social merits and foundation of the claims being made, by these four (4) groups claiming to be "Abenaki" "Tribes" who were seeking and approaching them? Oh that's right, Vermont and the Groups seeking "recognition" didn't want any transparent evaluation of the merits of these groups claims and assertions, genealogically, historically and socially.

Clearly, there was ample 'evidence' to question the dubious claims being made ! 

Obviously, this was why these 4 groups (the St. Francis-Sokoki/Missisquoi, the Nulhegan, the Koasek, and the El-Nu) protested the REQUIREMENT of legitimately qualified and unbiased experts to do the necessary genealogical, historical, and social evaluations as to the merits of their ancestral, social and historical backgrounds from 1974 up to 2015.

Under VT Bill S.222, the State of Vermont's Legislature left it up to the "Scholars" which were selected and approved by the Groups (with members on the VCNAA of which Commission in tandem with the Groups they came from, worked hand-in-hand), such as Frederick M. Wiseman Ph.D., Kevin Dann, Eloise Beil, William Haviland, and John Scott Moody (to name a few) to allegedly verify and validate that the information presented was truthful and accurate within the Application. Apparently that wasn't a matter of importance to any of them. 

There was no requirement for a GENEALOGIST to review any of the genealogies that were allegedly attached to the Applications. There was no qualified review of any of these applications for State Recognition, genealogically, historically, or socially. The biased and manipulative Professor, Mr. Frederick M. Wiseman and other alleged "experts" etc simply conjured and conjectured ... with "scholarly data" compiled by Wiseman of which he distorted.

Obviously, in reviewing the merits of these "Abenaki Application's claims of the St. Francis-Sokoki (Missisquoi), the El-Nu, the Koasek of the Koas, and of course the Nulhegan of the Cowasuk a.k.a. allegedly the "Old Philips Band" ....

I have found many DISTORTIONS and MANIPULATIONS of that "scholarly data" propped up by Frederick M. Wiseman, Ph.D. etc. 

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