VERMONT SECRETARY OF STATE CORPORATIONS
MARCH 08, 2007 11:26 AM
Articles of Amendment Form
Domestic Non profits and Cooperatives
AHA "Abenaki Helping Abenaki"
APPROVAL BY DIRECTORS OR INCORPORATORS:
(a) 3 members to vote on amendments.
(b) 3 votes were cast for each amendment with no disputes on either. amendment. Member's who voted were Chad Abbott, Gail Girard, Candace Dague.
VERMONT SECRETARY OF STATE CORPORATIONS
MARCH 08, 2007 11:26 AM
Articles of Amendment Form
DATE: March 07, 2007
$25.00 / Note: In the event that there is a problem with your application give us an email address or a phone number so that we can serve you faster. Please file in duplicate.
NULHEGAN BAND OF THE COOSUCK-ABENAKI PEOPLE INC.
NATIVE AMERICAN TRIBAL ENTITY
State of Incorporation:
Fiscal Month End:
P.O. Box 1251
City State Zip:
DERBY LINE VT 05830
Officer 1: DAWN MACIE
Officer 2: LUKE WILLARD
Officer 3: NANCY COTE
Principal Street Address:
322 ELM ST, APT 2
City State Zip:
DERBY LINE VT 05830
06/06/2008 [June 06, 2008]
Above accurated as of 01/22/2011
The Intervale contain one of the best collections of ancient Native American archaeological sites known in Vermont. Native peoples lived within the Intervale for at least the last 5,000 years and perhaps longer, first in small seasonal encampments and later in semi-sedentary villages as cultivated foods became a more reliable and significant food source. The Intervale produced a vast amounty of animal, plant, and riverine resources that attracted ancient groups to this area to collect seasonally available foods and other needed resources. As agriculture developed, these people were able to harvest corn, beans, squash, and other cultigens with surplus foods stored in deep pits dug into the floors of their lodges. The earliest evidence of agriculture in the Intervale was documented during an archeological study of the Donahue site where charred corn kernels were radiocarbon dated to approximately 1450 AD. To this day Abenaki families continue to collect Intervale plants for food and medicinal purposes and fish the river.
The Missisquoi Abenaki will continue to work with the Intervale staff and board to protect these important sites. In the spirit of this partnership the Intervale Center offered a suitable repatriation plot to Chief April to reinter human remains found along Mallets Creek because it could guarantee perpetual protection of these burials through the Vermont Housing and Conservation Board easement. In July of 2008 three sets of human remains were reinterred on Intervale Center property in a remote and protected location.
--Chief April St. Francis Merrill, Abenaki Nation of Missisquoi, St. Francis/Sokoki Band
--David Skinas, Abenaki Self Help Association Incorporated, Intervale Center Board Member
Although I received a letter from Kit Perkins Intervale Center's previous executive director, stating that she "would not allow any digging past the depth of a plow's disturbance,” digging to place irrigation pipes underground and building stockade fences and hoop houses with hundreds of three-foot holes is a regular occurrence. I monitor
We now we have to compete with lateral oppression to save the land. The Intervale Center puts out an annual newsletter called “Explorer.” This week, Explorer 2008 came out and inside the cover was a letter from April St. Francis. I have copied her letter here for you to read:
April St. Francis Merrill has been trying to allow the Intervale Compost Products to continue operation in its present location. April has denied my heritage in public newspapers. She has met with ICP and CSWD people to state that I am not Abenaki and that this is her homeland. I know April is very knowledgeable but this is not her homeland. She does not know this land, she doesn't know the corn grinding stone, the sacred caves, the plants, the animals, and the fish, where the ancient chestnut and butternut fields are or where Cat's Island or other burial sites are located. I don’t think she knows how destructive her actions are. I don’t think she cares. She doesn't know the test results show the leachate is high in contaminants and that ICP wants to spread it on the fields adjacent to the river. She doesn't know that the Intervale operation is the biggest story of “greenwashing” Vermont has ever seen. She doesn't know all this because this is not her homeland. I have lived here for 54 years. I'm tired of April’s trying to prove who she is by making accusations against everyone else. Heritage doesn't matter—the land is crying for help. The ancestors are crying for help. But April doesn't know this either.
One hundred years ago, people of Abenaki hertiage had to hide their cultural identity in order to fit into the primarily European white culture that had invaded North America. My husband's Abenaki people had to lie on their children's birth records and on their own marriage certificates and families felt the need to even lie death certificates in order to protect their families, and again to "fit in" with the main stream culture. The Abenaki people did not live in large organized groups, bands or tribes as this would call more attention to them. In order to survive they formed small based tight knit bands.
Now fast forward to the year 2008. My husband is of Abenaki heritage and is proud of it. Neither he nor his Abenaki relatives have to hide their heritage but they now face a more hideous problem. It is now Abenaki against Abenaki. The Western Abenaki Elders of the Swanton based St. Francis/Sokoki band refuse to recognize other people of Abenaki heritage. Three years ago, their Chief April Merrill repeatedly told use that while the Abenaki were in the process of attempting to obtain Federal Government Recognition, that their enrollment was "on hold" and would remain so until the lengthy process was completed and until recognition was hopefully obtained.
Even after the Abenaki received state recognition, they failed to attain the federal recognition that they felt was so important. Chief Merrill was never able to fully explain why enrollment was frozen during the federal process. After speaking with many other Abenaki people it became apparent that the freezing of membership did not help to attain federal recognition. In fact, it would make more sense that there would be strenght in numbers, the larger the Abenaki nation the more influential and stronger it would become.
After Ms. Merrill kept membership at a standstill for two years because her band was so busy attempting to submit materials to revert the federal government's decision that that the Abenaki were not recognized, I decided to write to the BIA (Bureau of Indian Affairs) because I wanted to further understand its decision to deny recognition of the Abenaki. I recieved a several hundred page document from the BIA which included copies of materials that the St. Francis/Sokoki submitted as well as the BIA's lengthy response and decision. One vital piece of information which Ms. Merrill does not want the public to know is that the BIA is never going to give the Abenaki federal recognition, for a number of reasons but most importantly that they failed to prove that the Abenaki have lived continually in the United States. It is well documented that the Abenaki periodically moved between the USA and southern Quebec in an effort to avert sickness and the anglo europeans.
If Chief Merrill is going to freeze enrollment for membership until federal recognition is received she can continue to keep many true Abenaki people in limbo making it impossible for them to be recognized as members of the Abenaki Nation. There is something wrong with this lack of process and even more
This has become apparent after I read a recent article in the Burlington Free Press regarding Abenaki Bands voicing opinions on recognition and related issues. Merrill is pushing for the Swanton band and the Koasek Band of Newbury to receive recognition. It was not long ago that the former Koasek Band Chief Nancy Millette [Doucet] and her band was not viewed as being recognizable. The Koasek even invited my husband and his family to apply for membership in her Band and that in order to do so any affiliation or application to join any other band would need to be formally retracted. Now all of a sudden the Koasek and St. Francis/Sokoki have joined forces. Will this benefit all Abenaki peoples or just these bands that have the loudest voices? Why should other bands have to go through any different scrutiny or recognition processes? Why aren't Merrill and Millette fighting to support all Abenaki peoples? What about the Nulhegan Band of the Northeast Kingdom; or the Coos Cowasuck Band; or the Mazipskwik Band; or the Obomsawin Band; or the Alnobak Nebesakiak Band; or the MANY Abenaki individuals that are either formed in small family based bands or for whatever reason are not connected to a recognized band? Don't all documented Abenaki people have the same rights? Is this like a 'caste system' with the St. Francis/Sokoki and Koasek at the top of the pyramid with the other Abenaki people trickling down the pyramid? I thought the days of the Abenaki being second class citizens were over but now it is a few bands that want the prestige, power and control over the rest of us. No one Abenaki band is better or should be more powerful than the others. The Abenaki NATION; all of its bands, clans and documented individuals must join together because that is where there will be strength not only for its present day peoples but also for its future generations.
In the Burlington Free Press article, Ms. Merrill states that "she doesn't trust the commission to decide which bands should be recognized. She also refuses to be represented on the Vermont Commission on Native American Affairs because members were not required to prove their heritage. Merrill cannot have it all her own way. She doesn't trust this commission yet the commission was formed shortly after the Abenaki received state recognition in an effort to aide them. She doesn't want to be represented on the commission but she wants to complain about it. Rather than work to improve the commission and to give another viewpoint she would rather question the members heritage. Why should all members of the commission have to be Abenaki? The heritage of members of other commissions is not questioned. The important factor is that members must be willing to fight for the causes of the group while being fair and equitable to all individuals and groups being represented.
"Ginney" from Johnson, Vermont wrote the above 3 page letter
Date: Tuesday, February 09, 2010 9:27 AM
From: ETPVT@aol.com [Ralph Skinner Swett]
From: email@example.com [Howard F. Knight Jr.]
To: firstname.lastname@example.org [Ralph Skinner Swett]
Sent: 2/8/2010 1:58 PM
Subject: Fw: New VT Bill ... H. 569
Kwai Kwai Ralph,
Below is the House Version of the House of Rep's Abenaki Recognition Bill, # 569 as promised FYI [For Your Information]. The best to do is to kill this bill and let it join the Senate verion in the File 13 basket [garbage]. Hopefully! Let them know that this is unacceptable without ALL of the groups that are headquartered and/or incorporated here in Vermont. Also, how can a group like the Nulhegan Band be a historical group WHEN IT IS a breakaway group from the Clan of the Hawk in 2004-2005? There is now way that it computes logically or otherwise.
For Fred Wiseman to claim it is so, he is totally wrong. The same goes for the El Nu as they have only one person who has any Native Lineage that I am aware of, and that is a proven fact by a genealogist. Also, Nancy Millette Doucet, a self-proclaimed Chief of 73 of her family members (all are non-native per the genealogist), herself, has NO NATIVE lineage, and a DNA test (she had one last fall and now claims that it proves she is native) but the truth be known, a DNA test, WITHOUT the Genealogical proof to back up the DNA test, IT IS WORTHLESS. That simple and no arguments becauset hat is the gospel truth.
P.S. Be Well, Stay Well, and Treat Yourself Well.
From: Brian Chenevert
To: [Redacted by someone, Howard Knight?]
Sent: Monday, February 08, 2010 11:17 AM
Subject: New VT Bill ... H.569
I am somewhat confused by this bill
Here one can review that Howard Franklin Knight, Jr. was directly communicating with his appointee's/ created "Chief's" Ralph Skinner Swett of the Clan of the Hawk, Inc. and also Brian Chenevert of the Koasek Traditional Band of the Koas, Inc.
From: Luke Willard email@example.com
Subject: Fred Wiseman & Eugene St. Onge
To: Fred Wiseman firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Fred M. Wiseman Ph.D,
I'd like to introduce you to Eugene St. Onge. he is a Nulhegan Abenaki and a Ceremonial Leader in our community. You mentioned a short time ago that each band should appoint a tribal official to conduct ceremony, etc. Eugene is an intellectual and very well spoken. I have relied upon him, recently, for counsel. I'd appreciate it if you'll keep him informed of events that may require or benefit from an Abenaki/Alliance presence whether it be ceremonial, spiritual, etc ... you know what I mean. Eugene will be there and will become a familiar face and recognized ceremonial leader. Eugene has earned my respect and trust.
Eugene St. Onge,
I'd like to introduce you to Professor Fred Wiseman. Fred is the Vermont Indigenous Alliance Coordinator. As you know the Alliance consists of the Nulhegan, Missisquoi, Koasek and Elnu Abenaki tribes. Fred is an historian, author, and scholar. He has the best understanding of the Vermont Abenaki that I've come across. He has become a trusted consult and a dear friend. He is an intellectual warrior and a wise man. I trust his counsel. Fred is leading the official fight for recognition on behalf of myself and the other chiefs.
On a personal note ... please try to include Grandfather Philip Thibault as much as you can and when it is convenient to him (and while we still have him). He is a Nulhegan and holds a special place in my heart and was close to Grandmother Nancy.
Chief Luke Willard
Nulhegan - Memphremagog
Vermont Indigenous Alliance
(802) 766-4725 Home
(802) 751-5043 Mobile
From: Fred Wiseman firstname.lastname@example.org
Thursday, March 04, 2010 2:57 PM
Subject: Re: Fred Wiseman & Eugene St. Onge
To: 'Luke Willard' email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org
Hello Eugene St. Onge,
Good to have someone from Nulhegan in the ceremonial role -- I value Luke's counsel and will be sure to include you in all that we plan and do.
Wow, I remember Phil Thibault way back when he worked for the railroad, then met him again at a ceremony in St. Albans in 1989. Lot of water of the dam since then. I will think of him, if you could give me a contact phone or email for him.
Fred M. Wiseman Ph.D
Meeting of Nulhegan Council March 13, 2010
Due to the absence of Luke Willard the meeting was called to order at 2:10 PM by Billie Largy. The following people were in attendence:
Forrest and Kathy Cheney
Nickie St. Onge
Eugene St. Onge
The purpose of the meeting was to elect officers to vacant positions on the Council and elect a Sub Chief. A motion to elect Eugene St. Onge to the Sub Chief position was made by Billie Largy and seconded by Frank Cheney. All in favor. Billie conducted the oath of office.
The motion was made to elect someone to the Tribal Council. Gail Gerard nominated Dana Cheney and Maria Cheney seconded the motion. All in favor.
Dana Cheney mentioned that he would like to see us all go to the state house to support the recognition bill. There was a little discussion regarding the bill. Dana would like to see us keep growing in numbers.
The meeting was adjourned at 2:30 PM
Respectfully Submitted by Ellen Blood, (Acting Secretary)
Next meeting will be Sunday, March 21, 2010 at Grandfather Philip Thibault's house at 12:00 PM Noon.
We will celebrate the Solstice - Bring Pot Luck
From: Luke Willard email@example.com
Sunday, July 25, 2010 12:49 AM
To: Grandfather Phil firstname.lastname@example.org, Eugene St. Onge email@example.com, Billie Largy firstname.lastname@example.org
Cc: Ed Davis email@example.com, Richard Green firstname.lastname@example.org, Dana Cheney email@example.com
Kwai Kwai Grandfather Philip Thibault, Billie Largy, and Eugene St. Onge,
I have purchased the high quality Tribal ID cards that I designed along with the laminating and other materials necessary to issue the ID's. They will be in my possession no later than August 16th, 2010. If I understood Eugene St. Onge correctly, he has made some cards to give to certain members. I understand that many people have waited a long time for ID's. However, a card that does not brandish the seal and the chief's signature is not valid.
ID cards have been a thorn in my side for many years now. Those cards seem to be more important to people than anything else. Well... now they shall have them.
Pan-Indian rituals do not make people Abenaki. I am working with the Alliance chiefs and coordinators to help bring back and relearn the real Abenaki customs and traditions. I have offered land that the tribe may utilize to build a longhouse, hold events, and a community garden. I challenged our tribal council to focus on self sustainability and community. I believe there it is MORE important for us to encourage our own to learn our true culture than it is to present Pan-Indian culture to outsiders who believe they are learning about Abenakis. How can we promote cultural awareness in the surrounding communities if we do not truly understand our own culture?
I'm going to arrange a tribal council meeting. I hope you both will support these goals and encourage the elders and families to encourage their own to step up to the plate for the sake of our future. The ONLY item on my agenda as chief of the Abenakis of the Nulhegan and Memphremagog watersheds is to ensure that its continuity is unbreakable and protected from harm. I promisted this to Grandmother Nancy (nee: Cote) Rolls and I hope you both will help me to honor that.
Communication is key. My phone number is below, I check my email frequently, and I love company.
Luke Andrew Willard
Chief Luke Willard
Nulhegan - Memphremagog
(802) 754-2216 Home
August 19, 2010
Eugene St. Onge would like to hereby state that he no longer wishes to hold the office of Sub Chief to which he was elected. He no longer feels that the Nulhegan Band benefits from his participation and has a conflict of interest with the First Nations Bear Clan which is first in his heart.
The Bear Clan has discussed in depth the participation in the Nulhegan Band and all of the people are in agreement that our participation in the Band would be difficult as we are on different paths. Conformity is not a strength the Bear Clan possesses.
We hope that Creator leads us all to the place we all need to be in unity, peace and love.
Eugene (Big Wolf) St. Onge
First Nation Bear Clan
Francis E. Cheney
Mary E. Girard (Baraw)
158 Whiting Lane
Brownington, VT 05860
Attached you will find two letters and several signed names which have been notarized. We hope that you will honor this request and return all documents associated with these names and remove them from your rolls.
You can gather all the information and meet Eugene and Dana in Newport at a designated spot and they will return the information to their rightful owner. Please return all records by August 31st, 2010.
The names on the signed letter are as follows:
Francis E. Cheney
Nicki St. Onge
Mary Gerard - Baraw
Billie Largy's card is enclosed and her son Allen will be forwarding his card. If you need any assistence or have any questions please feel free to email Eugene St. Onge or call.
Eugene Big Wolf St. Onge
The People of the First Nations Bear Clan
From: Nan Lee firstname.lastname@example.org
Sent: Saturday, July 1, 2006 1:29 PM
To: "Phillip Thibault" email@example.com
Subject: Re: agreement
Grandfather, like I said praying will make things clearer... It has been said to me that Connie Brow is the one that closed the Mazipskwik to begin with, and at this point is for this change. Does she have anthing more to do wit hthe Mazipskwik? If she is still in cahoots with April [nee: St. Francis - Rushlow - Merrill] that means she is in favor of chiefs', sub-chiefs' etc. This is not and will never happen with the Nulhegan Band. [Remember these words from Nancy-Lee Cote - Rolls, because she contradicts herself later in her communications!]
And grandfather, Luke Willard is being watched closely, by everyone from the first group [Clan of the Hawk, Inc.'d or North American People of the Dawn, Inc'd] as well as this group now. He has no idea of this and is worried about his genealogy at this point in time. ...
[I'd be worried too, if I'd made up some concocted confabulation that I was related allegedly to the Otondossone/Watso families of Odanak, Quebec, Canada] LINK: http://www.nedoba.org/gene_fake.html#swassin
I just hope that things will be settled soon, one way or the another.
Love to you and yours,
Nanny [Nancy-Lee nee: Cote - Rolls]
MORE OF MY RESPONSE:
So what it appears to be, is that the 'late' (now deceased) Nancy Cote-Rolls was NOT IN FAVOR of "Chief's" nor "Sub-Chief's" at all. Regardless in several of her communications at a later time's she seems to contradict her statements. Was she making up the rules and regulations as she went along with these other people? Yet upon her death, Luke Andrew Willard (who she had "issues" with in 2004 ... very shortly after the "Nuhegan-Coosuk" Incorporation was sanctioned by the State of VT Secretary's Office in Montpelier, Vermont) assumed the position of "Chief" of this incorporation and began calling himself a "War Chief".
Some Abenakis individually have served in War's since the Revolutionary War, such as the War of 1812, the Civil War, World War 1, and World War 2, the Korean War (I think), the Vietnam War, and subsequent "Conflicts" and War's since. But not as a majority of Abenaki People against another people or Nation. So WHY are these people in these incorporation's, calling themselves "War Chief's"? Is it that merely "incorporation's" Presidents who call themselves "Chief's" and so on, simply competing and slanderously fighting one another, that they need these positions they call "War Chief's"?
IF Luke Andrew Willard was honestly respectful and honorable to Nancy (Cote) Rolls, then WHY is the man, creating a Sub-Chief and calling himself a "Chief" after her death, if he HONORS her memory and position? I think she knew he was a hot-headed egotisitically hungry younger man, who lusted after POWER and CONTROL in his inflated EGO and his false sense of Self-Importance within the incorporation. He preyed on her at the very last, assuming a position within the incorporation, that in all liklihood if her health was sustained, she would not have approved of Luke Willard as Chief of anything!