Addendum to the Petition for Federal Recognition
Dated January 10, 1986
In Repsonse to the "Letter of Obvious Deficiencies and Significant Omissions"
Page 138: Swanton scholars’ lists and land records, when combined with the census records, show these other neighborhoods and the extensive familial links with Swanton and with neighborhoods in other towns throughout the area.
The movement of Henry Lampman and Julia Ann Morits between the Middle Road, Lake Road, Back Bay and John’s Bridge neighborhoods from 1822 to 1881 documented earlier is one excellent example of the integrated nature of the Abenaki community. 555 Henry’s travels in the mid-19th century are very similar to the settlement pattern of his brother William’s son John Lampman and his wife Martha Morits from 1884 to 1944. 556 Martha and John’s grandson, Leonard “Blackie” Lampman, recalls “a little cabin on the east side of John’s Bridge” used by the Abenaki families over many years before 1920. 557 He also remembers that “Indians came into the old Bullard farm past John’s Bridge … first road on the left after the bridge [going south out of Swanton on Route 7, the St. Albans Road]. Folks camped right there and fished.” 558
Footnote 553. Ten neighborhoods appear in the Swanton school records from 1822 to 1858. The Middle Road (Dist 1), Lake Road (Dist 10), Hog Island (Dist 15), John’s Bridge (Dist’s 7 & 8), Swanton Jct (Dist’s 2, 3, 4, & 12), St. Albans Line (Dist 12), Swanton Center Dist 13), Fairfield Pond (Dist 5/ East Dist & Dist 14), Northeast (Dist 6), Back Bay/ Bow of the River (Dist 9) and Highgate Street/ Monument (Dits 17). These last two combined early to form one union District # 9 & 17. See Swanton Scholars’ list in Appendix 3.
Footnote 554. See 1860 & 1910 Swanton censuses in Appendix 1B and Walling (1857) in Appendix 6D.
Footnote 555. See footnote 282, page 67 in Section I here.
Footnote 556. See footnote 283, page 67 in Section I here.
Footnote 557. 78, 10/2/81:1.
Footnote 558. Ibid:1
Page 139: “Refering to the Family charts in the Petition and Appendix 11, this data links the ‘Back Bay’ families with the ‘Swanton-Highgate’ and ‘Travelers’ families. 561 As the early history of the Morits family in Highgate suggests, the different modes of existence using neighborhoods or campsites were always options available to the entire linked community of families. The Morits family was no less ‘centered’ at Missisquoi because of their movement around to various…
Footnote 561. RP: 222-4 (Back Bay), 225 (Swanton-Highgate), 226 (Travelers); & Family chart #’s 2, 3, 4, 5-6, 7, 11, 12, 15, 18, 21 & 22 in Appendix 11.
Page 140: …neighborhoods than the Brow or St. Francis family were for their basic focus in Back Bay after 1860.”
“The John’s Bridge beighborhood appears often in the available records from 1820 to 1910. A branch of the Olds Central family was living there in 1822 and 1823. One the Hanis (Anus/Hanks) family was listed there in 1822 as well. 562 John Brow along with a Martin family were cited there in 1829. 563 The same William Martin was listed there in the 1830 school lists, but not in the 1830 census. 564 In 1834, one of the St. Albans Blowdure (Bluto) families was the only Indian family noted. 565 After the hiatus in the records of about eight years, the Lawrence (St. Lawrence) and the Dolphin (Dauphine) Ancestral families appear there in 1842. 566 This Issac Dolphin family had appeared first in the small Swanton Center neighborhood further east in 1840. 567 The same family was attending school in 1847 but is not listed in the 1850 census except for one Louise Dalphin who was living with the Gonya (Gonyo) and Daniel families in the Swanton Jct neighborhood. 568 In 1850, Hill (Martin) and Wait…
Footnote 562. See 1822 & 1823 in Swanton Scholars’ lists in Appendix 3.
Footnote 563. Ibid: 1827 & 1829.
Footnote 564. Ibid: 1830. See also 1830 Swanton census in Appendix 1B.
Footnote 565. Ibid: 1834.
Footnote 566. See 1842 Swanton Scholars’ list in Appendix 3. The Lawrence/ St. Lawrence family appears in the Brow and St. Francis Central family genealogy and was a major Abenaki family in the area before 1900. (Moody 1979: 57 fn 35; RP: 222-4). The Dolphin (Dauphine) Abenaki family has direct ties to Odanak and appears infrequently in association with other Abenaki families at Missisquoi in the 19th century. [Day 1981: 79, 104, 107]. One family of Sharkey and ‘Dablin’ (Dauphine) parents were cited living at “Missisquoi Bay” in 1828. [186, 1828:10]. And in 1838 a ‘Dalpin’ family was cited in the baptismal records with the DeBuiss (Wells) family. [113:48, #9]. See also Dauphine cards in AA.
Footnote 567. See 1840 Swanton Scholars’ list in Appendix 3.
Footnote 568. See 1847 Swanton Scholars’ list in Appendix 3 and household #288 in 1850 Swanton census in Appendix 1B.
Page 141: …families appear there in separate parts of the neighborhood. 569 Again, neither family was mention in the 1850 census, which was one of the decades when outlying areas were less well documented. John Brow had moved back or resurfaced again by 1857, as his Brow and some Francis and Bear (Beyor) children, were attending the John’s Bridge school that same year. 570 In the 1860 census already noted several other families were living in the neighborhood. Warden Lampman, son of Henry Lampman, a Balor (Blair/Belrose) family, an Olds, a Lashware (Lasise/Lajoie) family, a Currier (Medor) family and a Paquay (Paquet) family were listed at John’s Bridge in 1860. 571 In between the early citation of the Olds family in 1822 and this 1860 census listing of the same man at age 82, he and his family were listed once in the remote Fairfield Pond school district in 1840. 572 This Central family has been solidly associated with the Highgate woods and St. Albans Bay neighborhoods since the early 18th century but clearly had a branch living on the outskirts and remote retreats in Swanton as well. 573 Ed Martin and Mary Lampman, daughter of Henry and Julia Ann Morits Lampman, were living near John’s Bridge when their son John was born in 1871. 574 When Mary …
Footnote 569. See 1850 Scholars’ list in Appendix 3. The Hill family version of Mountain/Martin is associated with the Sweetser Small family in the records. The Wait listed here had two children named ‘Frances’ and “Demaris’. Wait was a fairly common first name used by the families in those times (see Paul Micah’s wife Waity for instance in Micah/Mitchell family cards in AA). It is likely that this Jona Wait was either a ‘John’ (Agent/Azo) family member or one of the Francis or Demar families and using the common Abenaki practice of name reversal.
Footnote 570. See 1857 Swanton Scholars’ list in Appendix 3.
Footnote 571. See households #’s 236, 239, 257, 266, 268, 273 & 278 in 1860 Swanton census in Appendix 1B.
Footnote 572. See 1840 Swanton Scholars’ list in Appendix 3.
Footnote 573. See Olds Central family genealogy in RP; Olds family cards in AA; & Family chart #’s 17 & 19 in Appendix 11.
Page 142: …[When Mary] Martin Lampman’s father Daniel died at age 90 years in 1891, he also was living the John’s Bridge area. 575 In 1900, the John’s Bridge/St. Albans Road neighborhood was left out of the census as far as Indian families were concerned, like other outlying Swanton neighborhoods. However, in 1910 there was 39 individuals in nine families listed there including a Parago (Parizo), Larrow (Lawrence), Bertrand, Wood (Brisbois), Gagnon ( Gonyo) and two Champang families. 576 The St. Francis family members recall the area being called ‘Indian land’ by a local non-Indian who used to allow Indians to cut wood on his land. 577 A member of another branch of the St. Francis family remembers when “Uncle Joe Terrien” lived in a remote cabin beyond John’s Bridge, and how the “Indians used to have a lot dances” there in the tradition of the kitchen katunks described here and in the Petition. 578 To all appearances, the area tended to be a temporary campground for Abenaki families on the move around the area. The population never reached over forty if the records consulted thus far can be trusted. An in depth view of the little neighborhood is unlikely as the 1850 and 1900 censuses suggest, because many of the families using that area were simply left out of the records. None-the-less, John’s Bridge had various Central (Bluto, Brow, Demar, Francis (St. Francis), Gardner, Currir (Medor), Lampman, Martin (Hill), Olds, Other (Bertrand, Champang, Paquey (Paquette)), Small (Balor, Gonyo (Chagnon), Parago (Parizo), Terrian) and Ancestral (Daniel, Dalphin, Hanis (Hanks/ … (Blair)
Footnote 574. See John Martin card in AA. He was listed born in “Dist # 8”. He also died in Swanton. See also Family chard #’s 5-6, 14 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 575. See Daniel Martin card in AA; & Family chart #’s 5-6 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 576. See household #’s 10, 13, 14, 16, 22, 23, 36 & 38 in 1910 Swanton census in Appendix 1B.
Footnote 577. 2074, 12/2/ 80:1.
Footnote 578. 213, 9/3/81:25-7.
Page 143: … Annus), Larrow/Lawrence, Lashware (Lazare), Ross and Wood (Brisbois)) families living there in the 19th and early 20th century for a time. Several of the families appear in a cyclic pattern of migration which often spans half a century. The Olds family cited there in 1822 and again in 1860, the Lampman family in 1860, 1871 and the early 1900’s, the Martin family in 1871 and twenty years later in 1891, John Brow in 1829 and 1860, the Lawrence/Larrow Ancestral family in 1842 and 1910 and finally the Gonyo/Gagnon Small family in 1850 and 1910. Clearly many families, as the oral tradition in the Lampman family indicated, repeatedly used this rural area outside of Swanton as needed throughout the period after 1800. The families cited here also effectively demonstrate links between all the major family groups summarized in the Petition including the St. Albans Bay families. 579 The whole picture of John’s Bridge available here documents an area better called a campground where temporary residence was as consistent in its own right as the more landed residence pattern found in Back Bay and St. Albans Bay.
Footnote 579. See Footnote 561 here. The Bluto, Gagnon (Gonyo), Paquay (Paquette), Hanis (Anus/Hanks) and Demora (Demar) families all appear here and have direct familial connections to the ‘St. Albans bay’ families listed in the Family chart 8 and others as well. [RP: 227 & Family chart #’s 8, 13, 16, 17 & 19 in Appendix 11]. See also Bluto and Demar Central family, Paquette and Gonyo Small family history in Section V here. And in RP.
Page 144: [The Lake Road Neighborhood.] In the 20th century, John Lampman and Martha Morits lived for many years on the Lake Road in Swanton. 580 In 1885, they also were living on the Lake Road (District 10) when their son John was born. 581 Since the last days of the Missisquoi village in the 18th century, the Lake Road, Middle Road and Maquam shore area have been another major campground and neighborhood for Abenaki families. 582 In this century, the Lampman family has settled out there for much of the past sixty years. Some members of the family still live in homes clusted half way to the Maquam shore. 583 Others live on River Street and Route 78 along the Missiquoi River.
Footnote 580. 78. 9/16/83:2-3, 17; Family History and Leadership chart in Appendix 2; & footnote 283 here.
Footnote 581. See John Lampman card in AA.
Footnote 582. Moody 1979: 19; RP:28, 114-D (Map 4), 121.
Footnote 583. RP: Map 5. See also Walter Lampman card in AA.
Footnote 584. See household #’s 211 & 212 in 1910 Swanton census in Appendix 1B. This Morits line ties directly into Anita Morits who married Victor Vincelette and appears in the Vincelette Central family and Laura Morits whose daughter married into the Maskell Central family. See Dorothy Porter and Anita Morits genealogies in AA and in Maskell and Vancelette genealogies in RP. See also Family chart #’s 5-6, 18 & 22 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 585. Ibid:household #’s 405, 409 & 411; & Family chart #”s 2,506, 14, 15, 17, 18, 20 & 22 in Appendix 11.
Page 145: On Goose Island, just over the Missisquoi bridge in the same neighborhood, Samuel Barratt and family were living next door to a Parizo Small family member. 588 This is the same Samuel Barratt and Bertha Atwood family which appears in the Barratt Central family genealogy. 589 The family had moved from the Franklin/Highgate woods area to Swanton via the Platt farm in Highgate Springs where they appear at the turn of the 20th century. 590 This is their first citation in Swanton records. By the 1970’s the Bushey Street neighborhood off Back Bay became the focal point for this large extended family. Already by 1910, the Martin, Barratt and Morits/Lampman families had been interacting continuously at Missisquoi for at least 100 years and had established familial ties dating back to the mid-19th century.
One particularly close sequence of marriages exemplifies the interwoven pattern of kinship underlying the early twentieth century Lake Road neighborhood. Sarah Morits was married before 1830 to the first Samuel Barratt who lived in Highgate and Franklin before 1830, and they had a child William shortly thereafter. 591 Martha Morits was born to a Martin mother in 1865. After her …
Footnote 586. Ibid:household #’s 164, 179, 180, 183 & 365; & Family chart #’s 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 12, 14, 15, 21 & 22 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 587. She is listed as ‘Louisa Misar’. Her pronunciation to the census taker would be ‘Misal’, which is ‘Mitchel’ in Western Abenaki. Phonetically spelled through English ears the Abenaki ‘al’ often becomes the English ‘ar’.
Footnote 588. See household #’s 188 & 189 in 1910 Swanton census in Appendix 1B; & Family chart #’s 4, 5-6, 7, 12, 17 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Footnote 589. See Barrat Central family genealogy in RP.
Footnote 590. See 1840 Franklin census; household # 272 in 1850 Franklin census; household #362 in 1860 Franklin censusl household #’s 190 & 223 in 1900 Highgate census in Appendix 1B.
Page 146: … father, Will Morits, was drowned in 1855, her mother Mary Martin married Barret in 1890. 592 When Will Barret died in 1898, Mary [Martin-Morits-Barratt] moved in with John and Martha [Lampman] who are listed living together on Bushey Street in 1910. 593 William Morits was a basketmaker and William Barret an herb gatherer according to local Swanton records. 594 The Barret family movement from the Highgate and Franklin woods, where one branch had intermarried with the Morits family, into Swanton was clearly a function of close links between the two families. Also the Martin Central family line in Swanton derives in part from Henry and Julia Ann (Morits) Lampman’s daughter Mary Lampman who married Edward Martin before 1871. 595
As noted earlier, that family was living in the John’s Bridge neighborhood in 1885 and later settled on Goose Island in the Lake Road neighborhood after 1900.
Like Johns’ Bridge, the Lake Road neighborhood has served as an entry point and temporary residence for many families in the greater Swanton area. It is much more spread out than Back Bay, and takes in a large rural territory with remote campsites, farms, trapping, hunting and gathering grounds as well as some homesteads and small farms which line the Missisquoi River right in Swanton. Although the Morits family after 1800 retreated to the Highgate woods and St. Albans Bay neighborhoods, the particular Morits ….
Footnote 591. See William Barret card in AA.
Footnote 592. See Mary Jane Martin card in AA; & Family chart # 5-6 in Appendix 11.
She was born in 1836. This was not the earliest documented example of intermarriage. Hiram Lampman, born 1840, son of Henry Lampman and Julia Ann Morits, married Sarah Barrett in 1861. [See Hiram Lampman card in AA].
Footnote 593. See household # 98 in 1910 Swanton census in Appendix 1B.
Footnote 594. RP: 77-8. See William Morits card in Morits cards & William Barret in the Barrat cards in AA.
Footnote 595. RP: 223, 225; Faimly chart #’s 3, 5-6 & 18 in Appendix 11; 78. 4/2/85 in Moody, Field Notes, 1977-5. See also Martin Central family genealogy in RP and John Martin card in AA.
Page 147: …family tie to the Lake Road area goes straight back to the early Missisquoi village. The 'Swatson' oral tradition, recounted in this section, included the Morits, Lampman, Gardner, Phillips and St. Francis families, and was anchored on the Highgate side of the River at the Monument. Also, there is an old tradition in the Lampman family members with the "Rood farm", which states that the first Lampman family members settled there on the south side of the Missisquoi River and rented from the Indians as John Hilliker and others had. 596
Independent evidence from another branch of the Lampman family now living in the Midwest, states that their common ancestor, Henry Issac Lampman Senior, who lived in Swanton, either continued or began the long tradition of Lampman/Abenaki intermarriage there in the 1780's. 597
On a parallel line of research, it was recently discovered that the Maurice/Morits Missisquoi family also used the name ‘Tanagite’. 598 One of the ‘Indian farms’ expressly reserved to the use of the Abenakis in Robertson’s lease on the south side of the Missisquoi River very close to the site of the Rood farm was owned by an Indian listed as ‘Towgisheat’ in 1765. 599
In 1837, John Morits was apparently forced for reasons unknown to mortgage about 18 acres of this same land near the Rood farm in exchange for cutting over sixty cords of wood within two years. 600
Beyond its location, what is most remarkable about the mortgage is the fact that it was not indexed in the customary way in the Swanton land records. Furthermore, there are no records that John Morits ever purchased the land in the first place. Like the 600 acres up on the Rock River in Highgate which…
Footnote 596. Barney & Pery 1882: 994; Aldrich 1891: 396; 78, 9/16/83:11 & 2/2/84: 12-3.
Footnote 597. 78, 9/6/83:11-2; 2291, 4/25/79:1.
Footnote 598. 55a, 1848: 212-3; Day 1981: 92, 96.
Footnote 599. RP: 174.
Footnote 600. See 1837 in Swanton Land Records list in Appendix 4A.
Page 148: … Henry Morits held ‘by possession’, the Morits/Tanagite family simply retained familial use of that small parcel, from the old Missisquoi village well into the 19th century. 601
Footnote 601. See 1800-1822 Highgate Land Records list in Appendix 4B.
Page 150: “Despite the vagaries of the records and lack of land purchase, the familiar cyclical land use pattern in the Lake Road area documents a continuous presence over several generations in the Lampman, Morits, Micah, Barratt, Martin and other Abenaki families. The neighborhood emerges here as a retreat and resource for those needing or wishing to live the subsistence lifestyle outside of…
Page 151: …Swanton’s non-Indian society."
The Morits and Barratt family ties to Highgate and Franklin in the first half of the 18th century, dovetail with their Lake Road connections from 1820 to 1910, and document a general pattern of integration common to the rest of the Abenaki community. One of the early men named John Morits married a Richards and was cited as living at St. Albans Bay in 1840. 616 Another, younger John Morits was married to Julia Demar and was also living in the St. Albans area in 1841. 617 One of these men was the same ‘John Morits of St. Albans’ who took out the barter mortgage for his family’s land in 1837 as well.”
Footnote 616. See 1840 St. Albans census in Appendix 1B. RP: 225. See also Morits genealogy and John Morits and Margaret Richards cards in AA.
Footnote 617. See 1841 in Father O’Callaghan’s register in Appendix 5A; & Family chart #’s 5-6 & 18 in Appendix 11.
Page 152: "The Morits/Tanagite family appears in the Lake Road neighborhood form 1765 down to 1970 in the same, typically Abenaki pattern of land use illustrated in the John's Bridge neighborhood."
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